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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Feb 2007

China chemical industry|Chemical fibers|DL - METHIONINE|Rice husk|PYRETHRUM

Highlights of Some of the Articles
HOW CHINA ACHIEVED THIS? The achievements of China in the field of chemical industries in the last two decades have been truly spectacular. Obviously, the proactive and positive policy initiatives of Government of China have been mainly responsible for the achievement of growth to this extent. This growth has been facilitated by the massive influx of funds and technology from multi national companies based in USA and Western Europe. Obviously, Government of China has been able to evolve certain approach to the industrialisation in the country, where the interests of China and that of the multi national companies and the Governments in USA and Europe have been able to meet, finding common goals and objectives. While China has been strengthening the research and development field and has been trying to develop indigenous technologies, the fact is that such massive growth has been made possible only by encouraging and enabling the multi national companies to bring money and technology to China in a big way. The growth in China in the chemical industry during the last few years by way of the capacity creation and output have been in the region of 20% per annum which is extraordinary. It is a tribute to the business acumen and dynamic outlook of industries in China, who have also stepped up exports in a significant way. Following figures in a few sectors selected at random readily illustrate this. Supply and demand of Acetic acid in China from 2000 to 2005 (Thousand tonnes) Year Output Import Export Apparent consumption 2000 865.1 103.6 1.1 967.6 2001 861.3 199.2 0.9 1059.6 2002 840.9 348.6 1.5 1188.0 2003 946.8 504.6 2.0 1449.4 2004 1151.6 525.6 17.1 1660.1 2005 1369.6 542.9 35.6 1876.9 Source:CNCIC Chemdata Supply and Demand of Chemical Fibers in China from 2000 to 2005 Item 2000 2004 2005 Average annual growth during 2000 to 2005 (%) Capacity 7400 16500 19300 21.1 Output 6940 14250 16290 18.6 Import 1652 1780 1520 -1.7 Export 100 470 710 48.0 Apparent consumption 8492 15560 17100 15.0 Source: China chemical fibers association Capacity and output of Polyester and Polyester Fiber in China FROM 2000 to 2005 Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Average annual growth during 2000 to 2005(%) Capacity of polyester 5950 8807 10676 12640 16150 20570 28.2 Output of polyester 5266 6650 8150 9800 11709 13853 21.3 Output of polyester fibre 5126 6326 7722 9045 10992 12701 19.9 Output of polyester bottle chip 360 560 775 1150 1300 1900 39.5 Output of polyester film 105 115 140 200 350 31.8 Source: China Chemical Fibers Association Production of Chemical Fibres in major regions of China in recent years Province Output 2000 Proportion 2005 Output Proportion Average annual growth during 2000 to 2005 (%) Zhejiang 1594.0 22.8 6603.3 40.5 32.9 Jiangsu 1903.3 27.2 4584.9 28.1 19.2 Shandong 413.6 5.9 957.2 5.9 18.3 Fujian 413.7 5.9 701.2 4.3 11. 1 Shanghai 469. 1 6.9 497. 8 3.1 1.2 Guangdong 479.1 6.7 465.0 2.9 -0.6 Total 5273.4 75.4 13809.4 84.8 21.2 National total 6996.5 — 16292.0 — 18.4 While China has achieved so much, what is now very striking is that China has the courage to withdraw tax incentives with effect from 1st January 2007 that have hitherto been given to multi national companies. Several tax concession measures to overseas companies have been withdrawn making them on par with the native companies in China. Beginning January 1, 2007, joint ventures and wholly foreign owned firms will no longer be exempt from paying land use tax. Also, later this year, a new corporate income-tax structure is expected to be implemented that will see foreign and domestic firms taxed at the same rate, ending years of special corporate tax breaks for overseas firms. The land-use or property tax rate will now apply equally to both local and foreign developers and will triple the old rate which was set in 1988. In large cities, the annual property tax rate will range from 1.5 yuan to 30 yuan per square metre depending on its location and type of use. In medium sized cities, the rate will range from 1.2 yuan to 24 yuan per square metre. In small cities, the rate will vary from 0.9 to 18 yuan and in counties, townships and mining areas, property will be taxed at a rate of between 0.6 yuan to 12 yuan per square meter per year. The new regulations will also bring to an end the unfair treatment of domestic companies which have had to pay taxes and fees from which overseas firms have been exempted from for nearly two decades. The above measures show the confidence level of the Chinese Government in managing the multi national companies. With several millions of dollars of money from abroad having been pumped in China and huge manufacturing capacities built up in the country, China ultimately stands to gain a lot, much more than what the multi national companies would gain. In the log run, it can be reasonably expected that the Government of China would maintain it’s promise to multi national companies and ensure that the confidence level that has been built up and created amongst multi national companies would be sustained. In the next decade, it is likely that the China and multi national companies in China would dictate trend to the global chemical industries enormously.
RESULTS OF ALL INDIA ESSAY COMPETITION FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Nandini Chemical Journal announced All India Essay Competition for University Students on “Appropriate Technology For The Production of Chemicals From Natural Products”. The students were invited to identify the technology development efforts for production of useful chemicals from the natural products, which are appropriate for immediate application. The objective of conducting the Essay Competition is to encourage the students to think on original line and motivate them to involve themselves in research and development activities. It was suggested to the students that they may study the journals, magazines, seminar proceedings etc. to appraise themselves about the available data and information with regard to developments, so that they can highlight a few technologies which they would judge as important. The entries were received from all over India from university students. The entries of following four students were adjudged as suitable for award of prizes: 1. Mr.Ranbir Singh Jamwal, II Year Metallurgy and Material Science, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, (VNIT,Nagpur),Maharashtra

2. Mr. Sanket Mantri, II Year Metallurgy and Material Science, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, (VNIT,Nagpur),Maharashtra

3. Ms.J.Vidyalakshmi, Final Year B.Tech Industrial Biotechnology (IV Year), Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

4. Ms.V.Harini, III year Biotechnology, B.Tech. St.Peter’s Engineering College, Chennai-54

The entries of following students were adjudged as suitable for award of consolation prizes:
1. Ms.P.V.Kiruthiga, Research Scholar, Department of Biotechnology, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu
2. Mr.G.Shakthivel Murugan, III year Chemical Engineering Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu
3. Ms.C.Asma Taj, B.I.S.M-Final Year Guru Shree Shantivijai Jain College for Women, 96,Vepery High Road, Chennai-600 007
4. Ms.M.Suriya, I year B.Sc.,Zoology/Botany Avinashilingam University for Women, Tamil Nadu
5. Ms.P.Fawlin Elizabeth, III year Physics Fatima College, Mary Land, Madurai-18
6. Ms.K.Vetri Selvi, III year Physics Fatima College, Mary Land, Madurai-18
Excerpt from the presentation made by the four prize winning students are published in this issue are as follows. PRIZE WINNING ENTRY 1 UTILISATION OF RICE HUSK FOR DERIVATIVE CHEMICALS Sri.Ranbir Singh Jamwal & Sri.Sanket Mantri
II Year Metallurgy and Material Science, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, (VNIT,Nagpur), Maharashtra.
Rice husk is an abundantly available waste material in all rice producing countries. They are the natural sheaths that form on the rice grains during their growth. The beneficiation of rice generates rice husk as by product that corresponds to about 23% of its initial weight. Present pattern of use of rice husk The rice husk is presently mainly used as a fuel, in brick ovens and sometimes used as a fuel in parboiling paddy in rice mills. Using rice husk as a fuel has got its disadvantages as its burning releases smoke and fly ash in the air. Various gases are released of which carbon monoxide is the most harmful one. Inhaling carbon monoxide causes respiratory disorder ASPHYXIA, in which the oxygen inhaled is prevented from combining with hemoglobin forming carboxy-hemoglobin. This causes giddiness, nausea and finally if inhaled beyond a certain limit, it may eventually lead to death. Apart from using it as a fuel, rice husk is also used as a fertiliser in agriculture or as an additive for cement and concrete fabrication. Important derivative products: The rice husk is fibrous in nature. The major constituents of rice husk are cellulose, lignin and ash, varying with variety, climate and geographical location of growth. The white ash obtained from the combustion of rice husk at moderate temperature contains 87 to 97% silica in an amorphous form and some amount of metallic impurities. Hence rice husks are an excellent source of high grade amorphous silica. This silica has been shown to be good material for the synthesis of very pure silicon, silicon nitride and silicon carbide and magnesium silicide. Utilisation of rice husk as a resource for silica is based on removal of impurities with low effort and the high specific surface. Process for the production of active silica from rice husk: Pre treatment: The Rice husk is washed with water to remove the dirt and other contaminants present in them and then dried in an oven at about 110 deg.C for about 24 hours. Chemical treatment: a) The washed and dried rice husk is then subjected to acid leaching. This is done by reflux in 3% (v/v) HCL and 10% (v/v) Sulphuric acid for 2 hours, at a ratio of 50 g husk/L.
b) After leaching, the husk is thoroughly washed with distilled water and then dried in an air oven at 100 deg. C.
Incineration: An incineration temperature of 600 deg.C is chosen. The cleaned husks are then burned inside a muffle furnace. The incineration is carried out in two different medias. a) Incineration is done in a porcelain crucible for 4 hours in static air.
b) The husks are burned in the same reactor under flowing oxygen (1L/min) for 2 hours.
The product that is obtained is characterized in terms of silica content, particle size distribution and morphology, specific surface area and also porosity.
The particle size distribution is 0.030 to 100æ“m. The structure is amorphous. The specific surface area reaches value of 321 m sq/g. Specific pore volume is 4.7297 cm3/grm. Purity is 99.66% SiO2. It has been seen in the procedure that preliminary leaching of rice husk was done with a solution of 3% (v/v) HCL and 10% (v/v) Sulphuric acid and boiled before the thermal treatment. Incineration in muffle furnace was done in order to substantially remove most of the metallic impurities and carbon. Thus in the end, what is obtained is white silica powder with a high specific surface area. Studying the x-ray diffractograms of the rice husks after the heat treatment indicated that for heat treatment between temperature 1140 to 1170 deg.C., no crystalline phase could be detected indicating the presence of amorphous phases. As the heat treatment process continues, the amorphous phases start to crystallise. Peaks corresponding to cristobalite Silicond dioxide were found for samples fired at temperatures between 1330 to 1425 deg. C. If the preliminary leaching process is not carried out, then the carbon that is present also starts to crystallise as a broad peak of graphite. At higher temperatures, reaction between carbon and Silicon di oxide start to occur and SiC (beta) is formed. As the temperature increase to about 1450 and 1635 deg.C, cristobalite phase disappears and only beta SiC is found to be the dominant phase

SiO2 + C = SiO + CO
SiO + 2C = SiC + CO
SiO2 + 3C = SiC + 2CO
Silicon Carbide (SiC) is characterised by high hardness, excellent high temperature creep resistance, high thermal conductivity and excellent oxidation/ corrosion resistance.
SiC has been conventionally made by carbothermal process called Acheson process. This process results in coarser millimeter size particles. Thus production of SiC in to an abrasive grade involves subsequent extensive milling, increasing powder cost by an order of magnitude.The cost of sinterable SiC is yet another order higher, hindering the use of SiC products in the consumer markets.
Thus thermal treatment of the rice husk turns out to be an easier and cheaper way of producing Silicon Carbide . Silicon nitride (Si3NO4) has been obtained from the carbothermal reduction of rice husk by applying the constant rate thermal analysis (CRTA) method. Under this method, the reaction rate of carbothermal reduction can be controlled and at the same time, the CO concentration generated is maintained constant at a previously selected value by the user. By using this synthesis technique, it has been possible to obtain ceramic powder from rice husk with a determined phase composition and a controlled microstructure. Therefore, rice husks have great potential as a raw material for producing Si3NO4 by the CRTA method. PRIZE WINNING ENTRY 2 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY FOR PYRETHRUM (INSECTICIDE) Ms.J.Vidyalakshmi
Final Year B.Tech Industrial Biotechnology
Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
The following three processes have been suggested by the student:    * Process technology for Pyrethrum (Insecticide)    * Process of DIMBOA (insecticide) from wheat    * Process of Lipo peptide surfactant - Surfactin Process technology for Pyrethrum (Insecticide) Pyrethrum is a botanical insecticide produced from the Dalmatian Chrysanthenums; C.cinerariaefolium or from C.coccineum. Pyrethrum is highly biodegradable and effective against many adult insects. The commercial cultivation of these plants is done in the mountainous regions of Kenya, Tanzania, Ecuador. The cultivation requirements are semi arid climate with cool winters and high rainfall; dry, gravelly and high lime soils. 1. Propagation of plants can be done by plant division or seeds. The seeds can be started in a sterilized medium with germination temperature of 20 to 22 deg.C for 2 to 4 weeks. 2. Management of these plants is an important task since they are sensitive to competition. However,pests are usually not a problem to cultivation. 3. The timing of harvest is CRITICAL for obtaining the maximum pyrethrum levels in the flowers. Ideally, flowers are harvested at warm periods and at full development. Under ideal conditions, a plant can yield around 80 to 100 flowers. 4. Processing of pyrethrum starts with flower drying. Traditionally, the flowers are hung upside down for 24 to 48 hours in water before drying. The process can enhance pyrethrum (pyrethrin - components in the powder) levels. The commercial drying methodologies of flowers are carried out in aerated buildings in sun. Alternatively, drying racks could be used until the moisture content is 10%. Pyrethrum concentrations can be maintained for atleast six months by keeping the crushed flowers in a freezer at temperature between -2 to -5 deg.C. This is done to prevent their degradation in light, heat or air. • The so-obtained pyrethrum can be extracted with kerosene and used for home spraying.
• Synergists like sesame oil, nutmeg oil or canola oil can increase the pyrethrum efficiency by speeding its reaction and preventing detoxication within the insects
The above techniques for Pyrethrum production is simple, cost effective, involves easily available resources and suits the Indian climatic conditions. PRODUCTION OF DIMBOA (INSECTICIDE) FROM WHEAT One of India’s major crops -Maize, more precisely the young maize seedlings and its growing tissues have enzymes specific for defense against insect attacks. Beta-glucosidase are stored in the plastid ( a structure within the maize cell) and their substrate DIMBOA or 2,4 dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one i.e. DIMBOA glucoside resides in cell vacuole cavity. These two remain separated in an intact cell. However, when an insect starts growing at young maize, it breaks the compartments and the enzyme breaksdown its substrate into DIMBOA and gluclose. The released DIMBOA is toxic to insects. But a very few lines of maize crops in India contain this particular enzyme. The technique of production of DIMBOA by alternate means (which was first carried out in Australia) can be tried in India. DIMBOA, a hydroxanic acid by nature can be recovered from three consecutive sources - shoots, roots and root exudates of WHEAT i.e.Triticum aestivum Six varieties of 17-day old wheat seedlings can be taken for conventional farming. The field soil has to be organic with loamy soil. Samples of wheat plants are collected at 4 growth stages 9 to 10, 12, 21 and 31 days. The foliage and roots are separated and kept at -20 deg.C. Following this, extraction with acidified methanol is performed and DIMBOA extracted from wheat plants. DIMBOA content, as observed, differs significantly in the shoots, roots or in agar medium (root exudates) between accessions. After allowing days of growth, DIMBOA accumulates differentially within the plant, with roots containing more DIMBOA than shoots. • Only 19% of accessions are able to exude DIMBOA from living roots into their growth medium, indicating its exudation is accession - specific. • Wheat seedlings do not release detectable amounts of DIMBOA when its level is low in the root tissues. This method involves only conventional cultivation practice and is easy to implement on Indian soils with benefits being farfetched. PRODUCTION OF LIPO PEPTIDE SURFACTANT - SURFACTIN Surfactants are versatile chemicals , generally associated with cleaning processes; from domestic washing to industrial laundering in cosmetic and medical areas. Their specific functions in agriculture are to increase the efficiency of insecticides (e.g. Pyrethrum) by a factor of 4 and to allow for better leaf coverage. Yet another cost effective technique to produce industrially useful chemical surfactin has been developed, which when used will specify the product in relation to the market requirements, including establishment of the functional properties of the surfactants, preventing their biodegradability, lack of irritant effect and non-toxicity. One such lipo peptide surfactant is SURFACTIN that is produced by fermentation techniques from the common bacterium Bacillus subtites. A good yield can be obtained from glucose substrate fermentation by CONTINUOUS PRODUCT REMOVAL by foam fractionation. The surfactant can also be easily recovered from the collapsed foam by acid precipitation. Production protocol involves the growth of the microbe B Sublities ATCC 21332 in an established potato medium simulated liquid and solid potato waste media and a commercially prepared potato starch in a mineral salts medium. The salts are Ammonium nitrate,Pottasium dihydrogen phosphate, Magnesium sulphate, Ferrous sulphatae and Calcium chloride This bio resource technology, originally performed in Canada and London, includes the utilization of yeast extract and aminoacids like Valine, Leucine and glutamic acid. The fermentations are carried out in fermentors using the working volume of medium as 20 litres. With the temperature adjusted to 30 deg.C and a low agitation rate of 200 revolutions per minute, aeration rate can be adjusted to the capacity of the fermentors. Crude surfactin can be isolated by adding concentrated Hydrochloric acid to the medium after removing the biomass by centrifugation. The precipitate formed is collected, dried and extracted with dichloromethane. Further purification of the residual off-white solid can be achieved by recrystallisation. The dichloromethane extract is dissolved in distilled water containing sufficient sodium hydroxide to give a neutral pH and this solution is filtered through Whatman filter paper 4 and its pH reduced to 2, using concentrated HCl. The white solid is collected as a pellet after centrifugation. PRIZE WINNING ENTRY 3 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY FOR ACTIVATED CARBON FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTES Ms.V.Harini,
III year Biotechnology, B.Tech. St.Peter’s Engineering College, Chennai-54.
The student suggested the following three processes:
  • Process technology for activated carbon from agricultural waste
  • Process technology for cement from rice husk
  • Process technology for silicon carbide from rice husk
Process technology for activated carbon from agricultural waste Activated carbon is produced from organic based materials such as coconut shells, palm kernel shells wood chips, saw dust, corn cobs, seeds, … The raw material is carbonized to obtain the char or carbonaceous material, which is activated to yield the highly porous final product. Typically, surface areas ranging from 500 to 1400 m2/per gm are obtained for the activated material. Research efforts in Ghana The Institute of industrial Research in Ghana in collaboration with the Forestry Research Institute (CSIR) is working on a pilot scale production of activated carbon from agricultural waste materials. The preparation of raw materials includes sorting out of dirt or separation of shells from husk in case of coconut and crushing of material to suitable size. The crushed material is dried to remove moisture. The moisture content of the raw material is an important parameter. If the moisture content is about 20%, the water driven off during the early stages of pyrolysis or carbonization reacts with off-gases or impedes their removal. This allows the off-gases to crack and restrict micropores openings in the product. Carbonized material may further be crushed to size, where necessary, before activation.
The carbonization or pyrolysis unit is designed to make provision for collection of the distillate material which contains three main components.

• Condensable gases which yield tar
• Non-condensable gases of high calorific value and which can be used to supplement fuel for heating
• Aqueous phase containing pyrogenic acids
The activation system contains a boiler unit to generate steam and a furnace containing the activating stainless steel chamber. The activation shall be carried out under fluidized bed conditions to facilitate uniform heat distribution and uniform gas - solid contact. The steam activation reaction produces gases such as Hydrogen , Carbon monoxide and Carbon dioxide. The Hydrogen and CO gases of this gas mixture can be burnt in an auxiliary burner to provide supplementary heat for the boiler or for the carbonization process. The carbonized product shall be ground into powder of specified mesh size for liquid phase or decolouring carbons. In the case of gas phase absorbing carbons, the granular material shall be ground by tumbling with grit or using any other suitable technique, so as to smoothen the sharp edges that might abrade into powder during use. Research efforts in USA The National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Programme (NRICGP) is the office in the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) of the US Department of Agriculture.It supports a spectrum of research ranging from basic, fundamental questions relevant to agriculture in the broad sense, to research that bridges the basic and applied sciences that results in practical outcomes. One such project with three year duration is aimed at developing industrially valuable carbon based materials from agricultural residues such as nut shells, fruit pits and other horticultural wastes and by products. The project will study the feasibility of using selected agricultural residues for producing different types of carbons. These selected wastes will be pyrolysed and modified to prepare samples of activated carbons for use in purification of water and air streams. Activated carbons are capable of purifying liquids and gases by removing and retaining a wide range of chemical impurities and potential pollutants.Success of this project will potentially provide opportunities for segments of the agricultural industry to benefit from the expanded use of carbons by being a source of raw materials. Research efforts in United Kingdom Wood waste (i.e. bark, sawdust, butt ends) generated from saw mill operations is posing disposal problem in British Columbia. Calgary Company is finalizing plans for a charcoal briquette manufacturing plant that will utilize wood waste that once went into smoke -belching beehive burners. The size of the proposed charcoal plant will be dependent on the long term fiber supply agreements signed with regional licensees. The relationship between wood residue required and charcoal produced is about 4 to 1. For example, approximately 1,00,000 of charcoal per year would be recovered from 4,00,000 bone-dry tonnes per year of wood residue using this technology. The charcoal
briquettes will be marketed mainly in the European markets, along with other future national and international options.
In addition to the identified raw materials –coconut shells, palm kernel shells and saw dust, other raw materials such as corn cobs, rice hulls and vegetable wastes can also be used to produce activated carbon. PROCESS TECHNOLOGY FOR CEMENT FROM RICE HUSK Scientists at the G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology have developed cement from rice husk. Pozzolanic material from rice husk and clay on mixing with lime gives a good cementitious material (lime-pozzolana cement) and when blended with Portland cement, it produces Portland-pozzolana cement. The process involves an intimate mixing of crushed rice husk and clay or lime sludge, which are mixed with water to form balls. The balls after sundrying are husk in open trench. Any clay or soil with more than 20% of clay fraction can be used for making rice husk clay pozzolana. The fired product is soft which can easily be ground to fine powder. The hydraulic binder produced by the above process has a bulk density of about 360 kg per m3 on grinding. It can be used as plaster for soil stabilization , load bearing concrete blocks, pressed and stabilized bricks. PROCESS TECHNOLOGY FOR SILICON CARBIDE FROM RICE HUSK Rice husk was first used by Cutler (1973) as a starting material for the production of Silicon Carbide (SiC). Since the rice husk route appears to be promising, much attention has been paid to it. Almost all the processes investigated so far involve two process steps i.e. (i) Cooking at lower temperature (400 to 800 deg.C) in a controlled manner to remove volatiles and 
(ii) Reacting the cooked rice husk at higher temperature (>1300 deg.C) to form SiC.
In a novel approach, Silicon Carbide is prepared from rice husk in a single step. The following experiment was done by S.K.Singh, B.C. Mohanty and S.Basu, from Materials Science Centre, IIT,Kharagpur, India and Regional Research Laboratory, Bhbaneshwar, India Experimental process A single step is adopted to prepare SiC directly from raw rice husk in an indigenously developed pot type extended arc plasma reactor using graphite electrodes. A graphite crucible containing the charge act as the bottom electrode. The extended arc is formed by the movement of the top graphite electrode with an axial hole through which the argon plasma forming gas is introduced. Experiments were carried out in batch operations and experimental conditions such as power and time were varied. After the end of the experiment, argon gas was allowed to pass for one hour and then the crucible was allowed to cool to room temperature. The plasma treated sample was found to be green in colour and fragile in nature. Thus, it could easily be ground in a mortar and pestle. The sample was then characterized by x-ray diffraction for phase analysis. Results Rice husk contains silica in hydrated amorphous form and cellulose which yields carbon when thermally decomposed. When such a product is further heated at high temperature (>1400 deg.C), a reaction occurs between silica and carbon resulting in the formation of SiC. The possible reactions of such a process can be written as

C(s) + SiO2(s) SiO(g) + CO(g)
SiO2(s) + CO(g) SiO(g) + CO2(g)
C(s) + CO2(g) 2 CO(g)
2C(s) + SiO(g) SiC(s) + C(g)
resulting in the overall reaction, SiO2 (amorphous) + 3C(amorphous) SiC + 2CO In the plasma furnace, the temperature is increased rapidly. It has been observed that after 2 min. the volatiles are removed. Formation of SiC is observed even in a short time period of 5 min., which suggests that thermal plasma induced fast reaction due to high temperature associated with it The reaction time of 20 min appears to be sufficient as there is not much change in the x-ray diffraction pattern. The inorganic part is concentrated in the outer epidermis (outer face of the husk), where silica, which is in the amorphous form, is mainly concentrated in
the regions of the horns.
Conclusion It was observed that thermal plasma has been utilized to convert raw rice husk to fine SiC for the first time. Also, it was found that thermal plasma can reduce the reaction time significantly as the formation of SiC is observed in a short time of 5 min.
Methionine is one of the important amino acids. Amino acids are organic molecules, which form proteins, one of the basic components of food and feed. There are over 20 amino acids involved in building protein. Those amino acids which cannot be produced naturally in the body have to be added to feed; they are known as ‘essential amino acids’, of which Methionine, a sulphur-containing amino acid is one type. It is necessary that all the essential amino acids should be present in the diet, so that the synthesis of protein by the living organism would take place. Molecular formula C2H11NO2S
Alternate names 2-amino-4-(methylthio) butyric acid, Meonine, Methialamine
Appearance Crystalline powder or platelets.
Methionine is produced in two principal forms as given below. DL-Methionine (DLM) In the form of powder
Used for feed application
Methionine Hydroxy Analogue (MHA). A liquid source of Methionine. Used by feed millers for incorporating supplemental Methionine direct into feeds. Methionine Hydroxy Analogue is produced in liquid form with a nominal 88% activity content. It differs from DL-Methionine by virtue of a hydroxy group on the alpha carbon, where DL-Methionine carries an amino group. Whereas DL-Methionine includes nitrogen in its chemical makeup, Liquid methionine analogue does not contain a nitrogen component and does not add the nitrogen load on the environment. Early methionine products (DL-Methionine and MHA®) were manufactured in powder form because feed mills were primarily accustomed to using dry ingredients. In the late ‘70s, concept of a liquid methionine source was developed. Liquid methionine was introduced by Monsanto in the 1980s as a breakthrough product in animal nutrition. This article discusses the following details:
  • Handling and storage
  • Specification
  • Product application
  • Global scenario
  • Global installed capacity
  • Global producers and their installed capacity
  • Global demand Drivers
  • Global Growth rate in Demand
  • Assessment of Global Demand
  • Expansion and New project by 2010
  • Global Prospects
  • Imports
  • Indian Manufacturer
  • Indian Demand
  • Process outline
  • Recommendation
Chemically, guargum is a carbohydrate polymer containing gallactose and mannose as the structural building blocks. The molar ratio of galactose to mannose is about 1:2. Guargum is an edible carbohydrate polymer and is found in the seeds of two annual leguminous plants, namely Cyamopris tetragonalobus and Psoraloids. Guar Gum Refined Splits (Endosperm) is the sole raw material for processing Guar Gum Powder for Pharmaceutical and Food Grade material. Appearance Yellowish white powder, which forms viscous colloidal dispersion when hydrated in cold water Nature of the product Carbohydrate and natural water swelling polymer. Solutions of guar gum and its derivatives are considered as pseudo-plastics. Molecular weight 200000 to 240000 Solubility Guar gum will disperse and swell almost completely in cold or hot water. It is insoluble in organic solvents. Viscosity The viscosity of guar gum solution is dependent on time, temperature, concentration, pH, rate of agitation and particle size of the powdered gum used. Hydration The optimum hydration rate occurs in the pH range 7.5 to 9.0. This article further discusses the following details:
  • Product specification
  • Product applications
  • Imports
  • Exports
  • Indian Manufacturers
  • Profile of Important Players
  • Important application sectors in India
  • Total Indian Demand
  • Growth rate in demand
  • Process
  • Technology Developments
  • Raw material
  • Prognosis
TECHNOLOGY EFFORTS OF GLOBAL CHEMICAL COMPANY - SUMITOMO Nandini Chemical Journal has pleasure in announcing series of articles on Technology efforts of Global Chemical Companies. In recent times, in view of the need to maintain the competitive standards and ensure that the consumer’s expectation with regard to safety and environmental standards are fully met, the chemical companies all over the world have stepped up efforts towards development of appropriate technologies to achieve higher standards of safety, cost, energy and quality optimisation. As part of its efforts in keeping the valued readers of Nandini Chemical Journal informed about the developments in chemical industries all over the world, Nandini Chemical Journal will publish series of articles on the technology efforts of global companies. The first in this series of articles discusses the technology efforts of Sumitomo Chemical Companies. SUMITOMO CHEMICAL COMPANY, JAPAN Incorporated in 1913, Sumitomo Chemical combines its technological expertise in a wide range of businesses that include petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals and the IT-related field. Subsidiaries and Affiliates:
Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd.,
Koei Chemical Co., Ltd.,
Taoka Chemical Co., Ltd.,
The Polyolefin Company (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.,
Sumitomo Chemical America, Inc.
Valent U.S.A. Corp., and others.
Total: 104 companies.
Major Business Sectors:     * Basic Chemicals,
    * Petrochemicals & Plastics,
    * Fine Chemicals,
    * Agricultural Chemical,
    * Pharmaceuticals,
    * IT-Related Chemicals Sector,
The sales turn over of the company for the year 2005 has been reported to be US $ 12.86 billion This article discusses the following details:
  • New Propylene Oxide Process
  • Development of Value added Acrylic Film
  • Stabilization of Thermoplastic Resins
  • Development of Spherical Polyamide Fine Powder
  • Easy Processing Polyethylene
  • Development of High Performance Elastomer ‘Tafthren®
  • Development of `Olyset® net’ as a Tool for Malaria Control
  • New Insecticide `Clothianidin’
  • New Pyrethriod Insecticide
  • New Antitumor Drug `amrubicin’, a completely synthetic anthracycline
  • Synthesis of pharmaceutical intermediates
  • Technologies developed by sumitomo in ecology protection and energy conservation
  • Development of PSA Gas Separation Technology to reduce Greenhouse Effect
  • Alternate uses for Coal Ash (Fly Ash)
  • Reducing Acrylonitrile emission by employing PRTR (Pollutant Release and Transfer Register) practice
  • Shinto Paint C. Ltd.
  • Sumika Color Co. Ltd.
  • Reduction in the amount of Vinyl Acetate and other substances released into the atmosphere (Incineration)
  • Initiatives to reduce Red Bauxite
  • Treatment of PCB Waste
PATHIMUGAM - DYE YIELDING MEDICINAL TREE VARIETY Pathimugam or East Indian Red Wood is a fast growing, dye yielding and medicinal tree variety, which is suitable for raising in drought prone regions. The most important part of the tree is the heartwood, which is used for making woodcrafts and for extracting dyes, used as a colouring agent for mats, woollen and cotton fabrics. This article also contains the following details:
  • Red Dye
  • Ideal fence crop
  • Planting details
  • First harvest
POTENTIAL FOR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY The Government of India is in search of new sources like tidal energy and geothermal energy for meeting the energy requirements. At present, renewable energy contributes only about 3% of total energy consumption and 6% of the total power generation capacity in the country . This is despite the fact that India is fourth in the world in generation of wind energy, seventh in generation of solar photovoltaic power and second in the world in biogas and biomass gasifier sectors. This article contains the following details:     * Tidal Power Project
   * Geothermal Energy
COST BENEFIT ASPECTS OF NUCLEAR POWER PROJECTS The proponents of Nuclear Power Projects argue that the contamination by coal-fired plants is understated while those of nuclear power units is exaggerated. Almost every radioactive mineral or compound is emitted into the atmosphere by thermal plants, states an academician of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. However, no International Atomic Energy Agency document endorses this view. The article discusses the cost benefit aspects of the Nuclear power projects. ALTERNATE ENERGY SOURCES: VIEWS OF NOBEL LAUREATE Global demand for primary energy is expected to grow by more than half over the next quarter of a century and coal use is expected to rise the most in absolute terms. Demand for energy is expected to go up further as developing countries step up pace of industrialisation. Search for efficient technologies to harness energy from renewable sources goes on. Nobel Laureate in Chemistry Hartmut Michel is selective about his choice for renewable sources of energy. He feels that the primary concern should be to select effective technologies for harnessing energy in a cost-effective manner from those perennial sources available in abundance. This article discusses the following details
  • What are the other eco-friendly sources for tapping energy?
  • What are the biggest challenges in search for alternate energy sources?
  • How can the problem be solved?
  • What about power? How much can we rely on biomass and bio-fuels?
  • Is wind energy the solution?
  • How can we fill the energy gap?
  • What is the ideal alternate source for power generation?
INDIAN ASBESTOS SCENARIO Significant occupational exposure to asbestos occurs mainly in asbestos cement factories, the asbestos textile industry and during asbestos mining and milling. The National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOH) has carried out studies in all these industries and generated baseline data. This article contains the following details:
  • Asbestos textile industry
  • Asbestos cement factories
  • Views of Environmentalists/Trade Unions
  • International Regulations
  • Indian Govt.’s Views / Indian Regulations
  • Customs Duty on Asbestos
  • Other Details
CRUDE PRICES DIPPING Crude prices are likely to be lower this year compared with last year. Australia’s economic research agency Abare, for instance, says that crude could average $56 a barrel in 2007. Analysts are of the view that prices could rule in the $50-55 a barrel range in the near-term. INDIAN SCENARIO FOR SKIMMED MILK POWDER (SMP) Indian production: The country annually produces roughly 1.5 lakh tonnes of bulk SMP/WMP, with Amul alone accounting for some 40,000 tonnes. Indian exports: Hardening global prices have, in turn, provided a boost to domestic dairies and farmers. During 2005-06, 47,334 tonnes of SMP worth Rs.4200 million were exported . In addition, 10,903 tonnes (Rs 2820 million) of casein - a milk protein powder concentrate - was exported. A move is under way now to ban export of skimmed milk powder (SMP). response to high prices and reports of nationwide milk shortages. This article also contains the following details:
  • Average SMP Prices in India
  • Global Scenario
  • Ice cream scenario
  • Countrywise Exports of skimmed milk powder
  • Manpower requirement in Petrochemical Projects in Gulf Countries
  • Global Biofuel Demand Trend (2000-2010)
  • Use of Radio Waves to Detect Explosives
  • Project Green Biodiesel Development Efforts
  • Pharma R & D Outsourcing Potentials-Finds of the Study
  • Prospects for Indian Healthcare Industry
  • Market Research Efforts of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
  • Compact Biogas Plant-Technology Development
  • Global Biodiesel Scenario
  • Update on Biofuel
  • Update on Coal Projects
  • Thorium Based Nuclear Power Projects
  • Update on Carbon Trading
  • Immunosuppressive Fully Human Monoclonal Antibody
  • Safety and Accident Page
  • Pesticide Page
  • China News
  • News Round Up – International/India
  • ONGC Discovers Oil, Gas in Three Blocks
  • Pharma Page– International/India
  • Technology Development– International/India
  • Agro Chemical Page – International/India
  • Environmental Page – International/India
  • Herbal Page
  • Energy Page
  • Price Details – India
  • Business Opportunities
  • Tender
  • New Indian Projects Under Planning/Implementation-Update
  • Directory of Chemical Industries in China-Manufacturers, Trading Houses and Promotional Organisations – Part XXXXVI
  • Chemicals Imported at Chennai Port During the Month of October 2006
  • Book Review
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