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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Jul 2006

Copper sulphate|Limolene profile|Lactulose|Alkyl kitene dimer

Highlights of Some of the Articles
  CSIR AS DEEMED UNIVERSITY – A RETROGRADE STEP The recent news item that the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), the apex body of the Indian R&D activities, has sought the approval for itself being converted into the status of Deemed University conceals more than what it reveals. This move has justifiably been criticized by several well meaning scientists and technologists in the country, as it would convert CSIR into a University like educational institution and erase its image as a research and development oriented organization. Obviously, a R&D body and an University have different roles to play and their focus should be different. The primary objective of an University is to educate the students and in the process it could carry out some R&D activity which largely leads to the qualification for the students involved in the particular work. The R&D activity of the University need not be of immediate commercial nature, though it can carry out work with commercial targets. On the other hand, a R&D institution like CSIR have the exclusive task of carrying out specific target oriented R&D work that should be immediately converted into tangible and economic benefits to the industry and the society. While CSIR entertains academic scholars for carrying out R& D work, for the CSIR , turning out qualified people is not the goal by itself though such an objective is the goal by itself for a University. One gets a doubt as to whether the CSIR seeking recognition as a Deemed University is an escape route for the institution, which is often receiving criticisms for inadequate performance commensurate with the investments made, requirements of the nation and the expectations. In spite of the chain of CSIR laboratories functioning in different fields, the fact remains that the country is far from being self sufficient in the field of technology, particularly in fields like chemical, metallurgical, pharmaceutical etc. The Indian industries in such areas are still largely dependent upon the acquisition of technology from abroad to set up new projects or optimize the process parameters. It can even be said that in many areas, the progress of the industries in India could take place only to the extent that the overseas organizations would be willing to provide technology support for the Indian projects. This opinion is not expressed with the objective of belittling the CSIR which has some creditable achievements in the past. But, this is said only to emphasize the fact that CSIR still has a long way to go and it need to operate with highly focused approach and targets to meet the expectations, without allowing its functions to be diluted in any manner. Perhaps, one of the reasons that CSIR would like to have the status of Deemed University is to improve its income, as educational institutions have become money spinners in the country. May be, that CSIR is thinking that it could put its facilities and resources for greater productive use , by utilising them for educating and training the students. If this were the objective for its move, then it is a totally incorrect step and strategy. This would perhaps give an impression that CSIR lacks confidence to forge ahead in the field of R&D functions, for which this has been created and which is it’s primary task. In recent times, it has often been said particularly by the bureaucrats in the finance ministry that CSIR should become self supporting and should not depend upon government for funds for its activities. Measures have also been taken by the government in the recent past to reduce the fund allotment for CSIR activities, which has forced several laboratories to postpone recruitment of new personnel and also not to fill up posts when scientists at various levels would retire due to super annuation. With steep increase in salary level in industries in private and public sector, CSIR is also finding it difficult to attract and retain best of the talents. Such conditions could have created some sort of uncertainty in the functioning of these institutions which is an unfortunate development, which could have made CSIR think on the lines of being declared as Deemed University. The national task is to drive the CSIR to achieve great heights by motivating the scientists and injecting a sense of dynamism and purpose in their work. This objective would not be served by diluting its functions or diversifying its activities. The Government of India and the state governments should liberally make funds available for R&D work and should not encourage short sighted approach in CSIR , of looking for money making approach like being converted into Deemed University status. PROFILE ON LIMONENE Limonene is a clear, colourless liquid at room temperature with an extremely strong smell of Oranges. Limonene is a chiral molecule. Chemical name 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-yl-cyclohexene Synonyms 4-isopropenyl-1-methyl-cyclohexene Chemical formula C 10 H 16 Density 0.8411 g.cm3 Refractive index 1.4730 Limonene is a monoterpene, made up of two isoprene units which can be distilled without decomposition. Limonene occurs in two optically active forms, namely l-limonene and d-limonen. Both isomers have different odours: l-limonene smells piney and turpentine like and d-limonene has a pleasing orange scent. d-limonene ((+)-limonene), which is known as (R)- enantiomer CAS number 5989-27-5 l-limonene, which is known as (S)-enantiomer CAS number 5989-54-8 Applications Apart from use of flavour aid in food industry, Limonene is increasingly being used as an environmentally friendly alternative to mineral oils as a solvent for cleaning purposes, such as the removal of oil from machine parts, being more easily biodegradable than mineral oils and produced from a renewable source (citrus oil, as a byproduct of orange juice manufacture) Limonene, an antioxidant in lemon oil, has shown promise in the treatment of lung disease This article contains the following details:
  • Global production
  • Process
  • Technology Development
  • Indian Scenario
This article discusses the application aspects and process technology as well as Indian import/export trends for Lactulose. PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS Category Disaccharide Derivative Alternate Names 4-O-b-D-Galactopyranosyl-D-fructose; 4-D-Galactopyranosyl-4-D-fructofuranose; 4-O-b-galactosyl-D-fructose; 4-b-D-galactoside-D-fructose Appearance White crystalline powder 5% solution in water Clear, colourless Molecular Formula C 12 H 22 O 11 Sweetness Sweetener than lactose, but not as sweet as sucrose. PH range 3.0 to 7.0 Melting point (Kofler) 169 deg C to 177 deg.C Solubility Soluble in Methanol, freely soluble in water. Action of Acid Acid hydrolysis yields galactose and fructose. PRODUCT APPLICATIONS Lactulose is a semi-synthetic dissaccharide in solution form for oral administration Lactulose is used to treat constipation and the mental changes that can occur when cirrhosis of the liver is severe. It is broken down by colonic bacteria mainly into lactic acid which exerts a local osmotic effect in the colon, resulting in increased faecal bulk and stimulation of peristalsis. Lactulose is a sugar which is not metabolized and absorbed by the body. Rather, the bacteria in the colon or large bowel break this sugar down into acids. These acids, in turn, pull water into the colon and soften the stool. Another thing that happens is that ammonia then moves from the blood into the colon. In patients with cirrhosis of the liver, it lowers ammonia in the blood and thereby reduces the mental changes of sluggishness, confusion and mental wandering. This article further discusses the following details:
  • Adverse effects
  • Indian Scenario
  • Sample of Individual Imports
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Patent for continuous process
  • Global Scenario
  • Global Demand
  • Popular Brand name of formulated products
  • Recommendation
COPPER SULPHATE – PRICE BECOMING BEYOND REACH Copper sulphate is used as a fungicide. Bordeaux mixture consists of basic Copper Sulphate with an admixture of gypsum. Bordeaux mixture is mainly used on crop plants at stages of growth on which its phytotoxic action is small. A grower sprays around 20 kg of copper sulphate mixture on an acre of plantation in the three month period during the rainy season depending upon the crop. While some growers spray twice during the season, some others prefer to spray thrice. The spray, which gives a coating on the tender nut, protects it from rotting Copper sulphate is sometimes used alone as a winter spray for trees, for the destruction of weeds or algae in ponds, and for killing snails in USA and Europe. Other copper compounds are used as fungicides, to much smaller extent, such as the carbonate, acetate, some cupro-ammonium compounds and cuprous oxide. Most copper fungicides have but little effect alone on insect life, but copper aceto-arsenite (known as Paris green, emerald green or schweinfurter green) is probably the most useful for this purpose. It is prepared by boiling together suspensions of white arsenic and basic copper acetate with a little acetic acid. Although Paris green is not now so widely used as an insecticides as formerly, it is very useful for the destruction of mosquito larve in stagmant pools. This article contains the following details:
  • Industrial Uses
  • Broad Outline of Manufacturing Process
  • All India Imports
  • All India Exports
  • Indian Manufacturers
  • Indian demand
  • Global scenario
  • Global demand
  • Use in USA for algae control
  • Price becoming beyond the reach
  • Global price of copper
  • Problems of producing units.
ALKYL KETENE DIMER (AKD) – INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY AKD and Alkyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA) are used in paper industry as neutral sizing agents ,which are replacing acidic sizing agent (Gum Rosin) AKD is used as a sizing agent in the paper manufacturing industry, to prevent ink bleeding. Due to water repellent properties, AKD waxes improve the ink holdout and printability of paper. Appearance Pale yellow waxy flake solid Synonyms AKD, AKD WAX CAS NO 142245-85-20 Reaction: AKD reacts chemically under mild conditions, with many substances having active hydrogen atoms in their structural make up. For example, with the application of mild heat, it reacts with the hydrogen of hydroxyl, amine and mercapto groups to yield stable derivatives with imparted water repellency, lubricity and in some cases, added strength or other characteristics. The article also contains the following details:
  • Use in Paper Industry
  • Process
  • Global Manufacturers
  • Indian Producers
  • Technology Supplier
  • Prospects
  • Individual Imports-Period 2005, 2006
FOCUS ON BIOFUEL Biodiesel has a bright future in the country; but there are issues relating to project implementation, role of public sector units in oil business, taxation system as also marketing and government support that need close attention, according to newly-formed Biodiesel Producers’ Association of India. Under an EU directive on biofuels, all diesel must contain at least 2% biofuel by 2007, rising to 5.75% in 2010. Governments in developed countries see a way to cut their dependence on imported oil, curb greenhouse gas emissions and boost local agriculture. India is still moving at snail’s pace This article contains the following details:
  • Indian Biofuel Industry – Much Talk and Little Action
  • President Call for National Mission on Biodiesel
  • Global Crude Oil Scenario-Expert’s Views
  • Global oil Demand growth withstands high prices : IEA
  • Analysts Pred8ict 2007 oil price above $61
  • Global Refining Constraints
  • Update on Global Developments
  • Scenario in Europe
  • Asia set to be biofuel Exporter
  • Update of Indian Developments
  • Recommendations on Biofuel
  • NexBTL-Biodiesel Technology Developed by NESTE Oil, Findland
  • Process Flow-Biodiesel/Glycerin
  • Biox Process
  • Commerciallisation of Process Developed by Kyoto University
  • Process Parameters
  • Spotlight on Desalination Projects Technology and Cost Aspects of Desalination Projects
  • Alternate Process for Desalination
SPOTLIGHT ON DESALINATION PROJECTS- TECHNOLOGY AND COST ASPECTS OF DESALINATION PROJECTS With the shortage of drinking water increasing at alarming proportion in India particularly in cities like Chennai, there have been great interest in desalination projects in the country. While large capacity desalination projects have been set up abroad, India is yet to gain adequate experience in installing and operating such large desalination plants. It appears that India has no alternative other than resorting to desalination projects to meet its increasing water requirements in the coming years.
Until recently,seawater desalination has been limited to the desert-climate regions of the world. But the advances in desalination technology and their effect in decreasing water production costs over the past decade,have expanded its use in coastal areas that have traditionally been supplied with fresh water resources.
This article further discusses the following details:
  • Global Investment in Desalination Projects
  • Selected global desalination plants, capacity and period of o0perations
  • Cost of Desalination water
  • Process for Desalination
  • Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Desalination (SWRO)
  • Energy factors in Desalination plants
  • Pelton Wheel Based Technology
  • Pressure exchanger based technology
  • Seawater Pretreatment Methodology
  • Alternate Process for Desalination
  • Saline Water Conversion (SWCC), Saudi Arabia-Profile
  • North European Gas Pipeline – Balancing between Benefits and Risks
  • Anti Dumping Page
  • Food Processing Business Incubator
  • Value added products from Tomato
  • Projects Proposals of Atomic Energy Commission/Nuclear Fuel Complex
  • Update on Nanotechnology
  • Copper Sulphate-Price Becoming Beyond Reach
  • DuPont Plans to Make Corn-based Plastics
  • Bioethanol for Automobiles in Japan
  • Conversion of Syngas to Liquid Fuel-Efforts of Australian Firm LINC Energy
  • Europe’s Market for Recycled PET
  • New Round Up-International/India
  • Technology Development-International/India
  • Certification Issues
  • Pharma Page-International/India
  • Pesticide Page
  • Herbal Page-India
  • Energy page-International/India
  • Update on Carbon Trading
  • Environmental Page-International/India
  • China News
  • Update on Biotechnology -International/India
  • Agro Chemical Page-International/India
  • Petrochemical Page
  • International Maritime Dangerous Good Code-Part XXXLIV
  • New Projects-International
  • Directory of Chemical Industries in China-Manufacturers, Trading Houses and Promotional Organisations-Part XXXIX
  • Price Details-International/India
  • Business Opportunities
  • Tender
  • Chemicals Exported at Chennai Port During the Month of April 2006
  • Chemicals Imported at Chennai Port During the Month of April 2006
  • Book Review 
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