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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, November 2011


Highlights of Some of the Articles
INDIAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY SUFFERING FROM SUPPLY CONSTRAINTS One thing that is clearly evident is the fact that the manufacturing capacities in chemical industries  in India  are not being built at  adequate level, which is creating huge supply constraints from domestic producers .  As a result of this situation, the import level of several chemicals, both bulk chemical as well as specialty chemicals , are steadily increasing with the import dependence of Indian chemical industries rising   to alarming level. What is particularly conspicuous is the lack of policy initiatives of the  Government of India to  keep the chain of progress moving.There is no worthwhile interaction between the Government of India  /   state governments with the industries and therefore there appear to be huge difference in perspectives between the government and industry players. As a matter of fact  , in view of such gap in communication, Indian chemical industries are  often forced to work out their corporate and future plans in isolation , without really knowing as to what sort of shape that the government’s policy initiatives  on several specific segments and aspects would be in the immediate future. In the recent years, there is certainly increase in the purchasing power of the upper and the middle income group,  as a result of which there  have been significant  increase in the demand for goods , leading to consequent increase in demand for chemicals and chemical products, that are required for manufacturing the goods.    While large segment of the people are still left out of the mainstream of  rising prosperity and overall GDP growth, the fact is that substantial segment of the countrymen have income level adequate to buy “extra commodities”.  But, such increase in demand for chemicals are not being met by supply leading to supply constraints from domestic producers and consequent increase in imports. The supply constraints are not only for the chemicals and chemical products but appear to be in many other sector.   Several thermal power plants  are reported to have coal stock at precarious level , leading almost to hand to mouth existence  and low capacity utilization.  Several fertilizer  units  suffer from lack of natural gas feedstock availability.  Many other similar examples of shortfall in supply can be readily cited. The net result of this scenario is  that Indian chemical industries  have to depend increasingly on imports and have become very vulnerable to international price cartels and global demand supply scenario  for many products such as coal, crude oil , urea, methanol, acetic acid  etc. The power scenario in India is now really alarming with minimum of 10% permanent power shortage becoming the order of the day  almost throughout  India.  Industries are asked to generate their own power to fill the gap in power availability but small and medium scale industries cannot afford to do this. Implementation of several new power projects are behind schedule and there are still considerable uncertainties about the future supply tie ups for coal / natural gas for the power projects. Indian research and development establishments are not able to come out with technology breakthroughs in appropriate directions , that are required to make the Indian chemical industries competitive in the Indian and global market.    It is ironical that in spite of increasing demand and supply shortfall , many chemical industries are falling sick, unable to exploit the opportunities. Indian chemical industries are now plagued by feedstock constraints and uncertain government policies and consequently they hesitate to build new capacities. It is high time that the policy planners realize the serious supply constraint scenario in India and take some policy initiatives to boost the manufacturing capacities in India and enlarge production base for chemical industries in India.  This can be done by a combination of  strategic policy initiatives  such as tax incentives , pragmatic  interest policies, providing encouragement  to  chemical products  that have high level of  relevance to India’s raw material resources  and appropriate  investment areas,  finding out appropriate substitutes for fuel   etc.  There is no indication that such policy initiatives are now being thought about with the urgency that they deserve. The ball is clearly in the court of Government of India and the state governments.  What is urgently needed is a clear perception and clarity about   the approach to overcome this impending grim scenario.  Some dynamic action plans that can stabilize the functioning and growth of chemical industries in India  are urgently called for. A careful analysis would clearly indicate that there is really no fundamental issues in Indian chemical industries that cannot be sorted out  by suitable policy and programme initiatives.  In the absence of policy guidelines from Government of India, the chemical industries are unable to forge ahead in directions that are  appropriate considering India’s strength and opportunities.   For example, the research   and development efforts to identify appropriate fuel source such as algae  are not being made with the speed that is required  and as a result, no one can be sure about the long term fuel supply options in India. What is called for is a national debate where the government and the chemical industries should interact and put their  heads together to evolve concerted action plans.  It is certainly the duty  of the governments in India to create right forum and climate for such interaction to take place.  It is sad that the senior government officials do not participate in the industry conferences  and  interact to understand the problems of industries but only confine themselves to delivering  inaugural address and valedictory address  in cosmetic shows.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE MEETING AT CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA Chemical Industries Association, a apex body representing the cross section of  chemical industries, organized a meeting at Chennai,Tamil Nadu, India on 23rd October, 2011 to discuss about the safety aspects of Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant, which is coming up in Tamil Nadu. There is counterproductive protest against  the Kudankulan Nuclear Power Plant by the some pressure groups and the meeting was organized to dispel the fear and state the facts. The meeting was well attended by large number of people including college students,faculty members, senior engineers and technologists and members of the public as well as political leaders. Mr.K.Ramamurthy, Station Director, Madras Atomic Power Station(MAPS), Kalpakkam and Mr.P.S.Pathak, Additional Chief Engineer, Directorate of Project, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., Mumbai, India presented  papers and explained the safety aspects of nuclear power plant. After presentation, there was question and answer session in which several nuclear scientists  participated and provided clarifications. Mr.P.K.N. Panicker, President, Chemical Industries Association and Mr.N. S. Venkataraman, Secretary participated in the meeting. The highlights of the submission made by the nuclear scientists in the meeting are provided below. The Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP) has built into its design a multi-layered safety mechanism, along with additional protocols to safeguard against systemic or human error at the 2000-MW station. The incorporation of broad ranging safety features make the plant completely safe and insulated from a set of worst-case radiation risk scenarios, including a Chernobyl-type calamity or a Fukushima-like disaster set off by a tsunami. Mr.P.S.Pathak, additional chief engineer, Directorate of Projects, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Mumbai, said the KKNPP have multiple safety barriers such as leak-tight circumference, four redundant safety trains (even though one is a sufficient safeguard) and closed loop systems. The plant has a negative power coefficient that put itself in a self-terminating mode if there would be  an increase in reactor pressure and a negative void coefficient that would also lead to automatic shut-down if there would be   less water situation. The primary and secondary containment design also protect the plant from a scenario of missile attacks, aircraft crashes or shock waves,           Mr. Pathak said. An innovative feature of the KKNPP is the passive heat removal system with a set of 154 hydrogen recombiners engaging the conversion of hydrogen into water and avoiding formation of explosive mixtures. Mr.K. Ramamurthy, Director, Madras Atomic Power Station at Kalpakkam, said that stringent safety protocols are in place at Koodankulam. “Even in the discharge of solid, liquid and air waste, what we have been doing all these days is well under the prescribed limits,” he said. Experts also pointed to the importance of nuclear plants in improving the India's energy security, especially against the rising energy demand for industrial growth, the depletion of coal as a source for power generation, the up-and-down nature of production from alternatives like wind or hydel. Mr. Ramamurthy later told reporters that MAPS would create an awareness programme to educate people about safety standards adopted in a nuclear plant and also encourage site visits. “We plan to conduct workshops on safety of nuclear reactors and also take those living near the plant on a visit to Madras Atomic Power Station at Kalpakkam,” he said.
Former Professional, IAEA (UN) Vienna
This paper was circulated amongst the participants during the meeting on Koodankulam nuclear power plant safety issues that was organized by Chemical Industries Association at Chennai on 23rd October,2011. The International Commission for Radiological protection (ICRP), a totally independent body of medical and scientific experts have analysed the data on the effects of radiation and recommends the limit for exposure to occupational radiation workers and also to a member of the public and propound the philosophy of radiation protection.
Their recommendations are accepted the world over and followed.  The dose limit set by them is 20 mSv per year for the occupational workers averaged over any five years and 1 mSv per year for the public.  This is over and above the natural radiation dose of 2.4 mSv per year, on an average, a person receives anywhere in the world.  It should be mentioned that there is a large variation of this natural background level depending on where one is located in the world.It has been proven medically beyond doubt that at the exposures below the limits set by ICRP would lead to no ill effects on the people.  These limits themselves are very conservative.
In order to keep the exposures much below the limits, national regulatory organizations further prescribe restrictions on working dose rates and measured radiation levels, so that even if people are exposed the year round at particular rates, they would not exceed the limits.  The philosophy of radiation protection is most comprehensive for any industry and no industry devotes so much attention and resources to its implementation.  Thus, genetic effects of radiation would not be noticeable at the dose rates existing around power stations. Radiation expose around nuclear plants in India The public around nuclear power sites in India are exposed to less than 5 percent of the limit for public dose prescribed by ICRP viz 1 mSv per annum.  This can be easily verified by the records kept by the regulatory agency.  This is over and above the average natural radiation dose received in India of about 2.4 mSv per year, which in high background areas of Kerala is several times higher.  These areas in the west coast and east coast of India where there are large deposits of thorium, a person is exposed to natural radiation dose of upto 10 times this level.  And they live there for generations.  Many independent studies particularly by the Regional Cancer Research Centre, Thiruvananthapuram on the people around the high background areas in Kerala have been conducted and the conclusions show that no deleterious effect could be noticed which is attributable to radiation.  When this is the fact how a small percent of the radiation background that might be received around nuclear power stations lead to any genetic effect or cancer incidence as stated by some in the press?. No genetic effect of radiation To further put the matter in proper light, even in the Hiroshima Nagasaki atom bomb dropping, many received enormous amount of radiation and there is no noticeable incidence of genetic effects in their progenies.  Efforts to detect genetic effects were begun in the late 1940s and continue to this day.  Thus far, no evidence of genetic effects has been found.  One can verify this independently from many of the periodical publications of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The false notion that the operation of nuclear power stations or accidents can give rise to genetic effects is thus a mis leading one, which has arisen from the micro biological research results that radiations can lead to chromosomal aberration leading to genetic effects.  Public are often misled by some that children with six fingers are born around nuclear power stations.  It is a medical fact that in India 1 out of 1000 persons is born with this deformity and the incidence around power stations is no different from any other areas in India.  If that is the case, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki areas would have been full of people with several fingers and genetic defects!  It is high time we stick to veracity of statements and not attempt to sensationalize the issue.  If such effects are possible, then the large number of occupational workers who work with radiation and whose limit of exposure fixed by the ICRP is 20 times more than the dose for the public should have shown some effects, which is not the case. The author can assure the public that no such thing is noticed.  It is unfortunate that some people who fight against nuclear power are taking recourse to statements contradictory to scientific facts.
This paper was circulated amongst the participants during the meeting on Koodankulam nuclear power plant safety issues, that was organized by Chemical Industries Association at Chennai on 23rd October,2011. Ms. Aspire, Chennai, has conducted the above survey in 22 villages within        8 km of the plant and in 3 villages in Marakkanam 54 km from Kalpakkam for comparison. The survey consists of door to door census and screening of the entire population by health workers, blood tests for all individuals  above          10 years and clinical examination and appropriate investigations for those found to have any abnormality. The census screening and blood tests have been completed with overall coverage of 85% out of total population of 25,174 and  screening is completed in 22,345 individuals. 15,644 samples of blood have been collected out of an eligible 16,840 and sent to Lister Labs Chennai for analysis. Cooperation was very poor in 4 villages. Coverage in these have been only around 65%. Out of an eligible 7923 in the control area 54 km away from the plant (Marakkanam), 6932 have been completed. No investigations or blood tests are being done in the control area. The table below gives the status as on Feb.28th 2011 Morbidity Area around the plant N=22345 Area 50 km away
National Average
  Total % Total %   Thyroid** 336 1.55 21 0.43 4% to 12% @ Cancer 48 0.22 2 0.04 2% to 3% Renal 24 0.11 4 0.07 Not known Diabetes 594 2.74 25 0.51 2.7 to 3% (known diabetes in rural areas) Lumps 342 1.57 45 0.83 Not known Mental retardation 74 0.29 2 0.04 0.5% TB 46 0.21 1 0.02 0.4% Piles 18 0.08 2 0.04 Not known Ulcer 43 0.19 4 0.07 Not known Polydactyly 16 0.07 1 0.02 1% Parkinson’s 13 0.06 0 0.00 0.2% Infertility 55 0.25 5 0.09 4 to 12% @ Hernia 10 0.04 1 0.02 Not known Leprosy 8 0.03 0 0.00 0.05% Polio 2 0.01 0 0.00 Almost eradicated
*        From available information. No complete survey exists
**      Mostly soft swellings with micronodules in the USG. One thyroid cancer only, No huge goiters (one seen in Pudupattinam did not belong to this area)
***    Mostly breast, colon and cervical cancers
@       Hospital statistics
Highlights from findings Prevalence similar to existing national averages. Despite blood smears on over 15000 people, no case of  leukaemia or any other blood abnormality was found.
(Formerly Associate Director,BARC, Mumbai)
There have been some recent mind boggling developments that suggest that indeed an alternative nuclear reactors may become available in the coming years. A new form of small sized Nuclear Reactors which do not produce radiation or radio activity and based on what used to be called "Cold Fusion" but now more appropriately termed as "Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) is on the cards! Yes, the physics behind these is still not fully understood and mainstream science has been skeptical. But as they say "the test of the pudding is in the eating". On 28th October 2011, the first 1 MWth prototype Nickel-Hydrogen Reactor was demonstrated in the presence of a "customer" by its inventor Andrea Rossi at the University of Bologna in Italy.

My article on this topic was published in the July 2011 issue of "Science Reporter"
Excerpt from the article is provided. What is cold fusion technology? “COLD Fusion” is the popular term used to describe the occurrence of nuclear reactions in a metallic lattice such as palladium, nickel, titanium etc when they are heavily infused with deuterium or hydrogen. The phenomenon was first revealed 22 years ago by chemistry professors Martin Fleischmann and StanleyPons of the University of Utah at a press conference held in Salt Lake City in USA on 23 March 1989. The professors postulated that during electrolysis, deuterons impregnate the palladium rod forming palladium deuteride (PdD) and in course of time “when the right conditions are attained”,nuclear reactions involving deuterons occur in/on the Pd rod. Temperature sensors (such as thermo couples, thermisters etc) located inside the test tube detected the onset of production of large amount of anomalous heat, which they proposed could only be attributed to the occurrence of nuclear reactions. This simple announcement ignited one of the fiercest debates in the history of physics! The primary reason for the concerted criticism and non-acceptance of the claim was that according to the prevalent understanding of nuclear physics, it is absolutely impossible for two deuterons, which are positively charged, to overcome the repulsive electrostatic repulsion between them before any nuclear reaction can occur. Fusion reactions are known to occur, for example, in the sun and the stars (and indeed also in a hydrogen bomb) when hydrogenous isotopes are raised to a temperature of over 100 million degrees, becoming an intensely hot plasma. Hence, the term “thermo-nuclear fusion” was coined to describe such reactions. So where is the question of nuclear reactions occurring at room (or “cold”) temperature inside a deuterated palladium rod? When Fleischmann & Pons announced the discovery of the cold fusion phenomenon in 1989, the general understanding was that nuclear fusion reactions presumably occur between the deuterons loaded in the Pd lattice. It was presumed that the “host metal” nuclei themselves were merely spectators, serving only as a catalyst or facilitator. Viewed from the perspective of the generally accepted understanding of nuclear physics, the occurrence of nuclear fusion reactions between a pair of deuterons at room temperature as proposed by the discoverers, was and still is considered “impossible”. The basic issue is the strong repulsion between two positively charged deuterons referred to as the “Coulomb barrier”, which has to be overcome before a nuclear reaction can take place. Public demonstration of  10 KW “cold fusion” reactor A public demonstration of a 10 KW “cold fusion” reactor was done on 14th  January 2011,by Andrea Rossi and his collaborators in Italy. Rossi’s web sites ( and give details of this development. Rossi’s patent application filed in August 2008 claims that “a practical embodiment of the inventive apparatus, installed on 16 October 2007, is at present perfectly operating 24 hours every day and provides an amount of heat sufficient to heat his small factory.” Rossi was granted an Italian patent for his “Energy Catalyzer” on 6 April 2011. The full text of this patent is available at Industrialist and inventor Andrea Rossi and his mentor physics professor SergeiFocardi of the University of Bologna have disclosed details of their invention in an article dated 22nd March 2010, titled “A new energy source from nuclear fusion, which was  published in their website. They have indicated that in their device, nuclear energy is released following proton capture in Nickel isotopes leading to the formation of various nuclides of Cu. Rossi–Focardi 10 KW Reactor A hundred grams of Ni nano powder is charged into a hydrogen filled horizontally mounted stainless steel container, about a litre in volume. (The entire reactor chamber was wrapped in Al foil to prevent revelation of the “trade secrets” of his invention to visitors, until grant of patent to him.) A 2-cm thick lead jacket placed around the reactor vessel helps attenuate the radiation fields caused by X-rays in the 300 Kev energy band generated during reactor operation. According to Rossi, when the reactor is switched off, what little remnant residual radioactivity is present in the core decays within minutes. Rossi has, however, revealed that there is a “secret” additive (approx 3 gm in weight)incorporated in the Ni powder, whose nature will not be disclosed for now. During the 14 January 2011 demo conducted in the presence of a specially invited audience of about 50 eminent persons, the thermal output measurements were carried out by Prof. Giuseppe Levi of the University of Bologna, an independent physicist not associated with Rossi’s invention.Levi was authorized to establish the E-cat’s performance as a “black box”.          Rossi has indicated that he is averse to increasing the power capacity of each individual module beyond the 10 KW level, as he has been playing around with this size for many years and is very comfortable with it. Resistance heater from its controller to start heating the Nickel powder and consequently the temperature of the output water began to climb during this transient phase of operation. For about an hour and a half thereafter, the generator produced 10 KW of net power. From the decrement in the weight of the hydrogen gas cylinder during this period, it was surmised that the mass of hydrogen consumed was less than a gram. The total integrated energy output during the 1.5 hr test translated to an energy equivalent of 517 kg of oil. Rossi claims that one gram of nickel powder can produce as much energy as 500 barrels of oil before it is fully consumed. In a follow-up test conducted during10-11 February 2011, the reactor generated 15 KW continuously for 18 hours(touching 20 KW at times) during which only about 80 watts of input power required by the power supplies of the measuring instruments was consumed. In other words, the reactor itself operated on a self-sustaining self generation mode, heat being produced only by the Ni “nuclear fuel”. However in general for ease of control, Rossi prefers not to operate the device in a self mode; by having the ability to shut off heating power to the resistance heater, he has better capability to shutdown the nuclear reaction rate.
Safety concerns
One of the safety concerns is whether there could be any possibility that the reaction rate could go out of control and increase beyond safe limits. Rossi has, infact, stated that in a recent experiment, the reactor power did increase to 130 KW and had to be throttled down to 15 KW. They are, therefore , installing elaborate electronic control systems to automatically maintain power at preset levels, as in most nuclear power reactors. Another  precaution required is to guard against chemical explosions caused by hydrogen combustion; Rossi himself has experienced several hydrogen leakage explosion incidents during his experimental campaigns. The radiation fields generated around the 10 KW reactor was reportedly much less than that produced around a medical X-ray machine in a hospital diagnostic centre. Notwithstanding this, however, installation of the Rossi cold fusion reactor would likely need approval of appropriate regulatory authorities in most countries. Year long R&D programme A year long R&D programme has been initiated at the Physics Department of the University of Bologna to address unanswered questions and safety issues. They are also preparing a campaign of detailed analysis of the spent Nickel fuel with a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) at the University of Padua. Two additional tests were carried out with a single Rossi module in Bologna on 19th  and 28th  April 2011 for the benefit of representatives of the Swedish Newspaper NyTechnik, who personally carried out heat output measurements. The Swedes wanted to independently verify the claims by measuring the net energy that the device generates as accurately as possible. The results of the two tests showed a net power output of between 2.3 and 2.6 kilowatts,of the order of a large stove plate. Input electric power was in the order of 300 watts. The tests lasted for two and three hours respectively and the total net energy developed was calculated to be 5.6 and       6.9 kWh. Prototype reactor under installation A new company called Defkalion Green Technologies set up in Greece to exploit this breakthrough technology has acquired the world rights (except the Americas) for the invention. The first prototype 1 MWth reactor plant is to be installed at Athens and is scheduled for commissioning in 2011, subject to obtaining the requisite clearances. 1 MWth reactor will comprise of 300 modules of 4 KW each arranged in a series– parallel fashion (as per their April 2011announcement) – and will be used to power a factory building that is to be used for manufacturing 300,000 numbers of multi kilowatt Rossi reactor modules a year. The modules for the Greek power plant have already been manufactured at the Florida based plant of Rossi’s Learnado Corporation (, that has been in the business of manufacturing electric gensets fueled by vegetable oils and animal fats. The 1 MWth plant will first be assembled and tested for a few days at the Florida factory premises before being shipped out to Athens. Plans for module manufacture in USA It was announced on 16 May 2011 by the Swedish Newspaper NyTeknik, which keeps a close watch of global technology developments, that Leanardo Corporation has concluded an agreement with a company called “Ampergo” formed in April 2009 and located in New Hampshire,Ohio, USA for the manufacture and marketing of Rossi Reactor modules in the Americas.
Glycidyl methacrylate  is an ester of methacrylic acid and a common monomer used in the  production of epoxy resins. While typical epoxies contain diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A  (DGEBA), glycidyl methacrylate is instead used to provide epoxy functionalization to polyolefins and other acrylate resins. Glycidyl methacrylate monomer has dual functionality, containing both methacrylic and epoxy groups. The dual functionality of  the product also brings together the desirable properties of both methacrylics and epoxies. For example, the weatherability of methacrylics and the chemical resistance of epoxies are available in one product. Both of these groups readily react with a wide range of monomers and functionalized molecules to provide the user with maximum freedom and flexibility in polymer design. Appearance             Clear Colourless liquid CAS Number           106-91-2 Alternative names    2,3-Epoxypropyl methacrylate, Glycidol methacrylate, 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-oxyranylmethyl ester Boiling point            189 deg.C
Density                   1.068g/l ( at 25 deg.C)
Flash point              85 deg.C
Solubility                  Partly soluble in water. Completely miscible with common organic solvents        This article discusses the following details:
  • Safety and toxicity
  • Specification
  • Applications
  • Global producers
  • Indian scenario
  • Indian Imports               
  • Process
Appearance Colourless to pale yellow liquid Molecular formula                     C3H5NH2 Application sector
  • Rubber Sector
  • Dye stuff
  • Dye intermediates
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Isocyanates
  • Photographic Chemicals
  • Derivative chemicals
This article discusses the following details :
  • Indian Import 
  • Indian export                                                       
  • Indian installed capacity          
  • Indian manufacturers
  • Indian production
  • Anti dumping duty
  • Indian demand
  • Pattern of application sectorwise demand
  • Global installed capacity
  • Global Demand
  • Estimated growth rate in demand through 2015
  • Pattern of application sectorwise demand
  • Global producers             ‘
  • New Projects
  • Capacity expansion in  China from 2011 to 2014
  • Process outline
  • Prognosis
Alternate Name Sodium methylate, Sodium methanolate, Sodium methoxide CAS Number 124-41-4 Appearance White, free flowing powder Molecular formula           CH3ONa Forms Sodium methoxide is produced in the form of powder and solution. Application Sodium methoxide is a versatile reagent favoring the chemical reaction of condensation, esterification, alkoxylation and etherification. This article discusses the following details
  • Indian manufacturers
  • Demand supply scenario
  • Process outline
  • Global demand supply scenario
    • Global Installed Capacity
    • Global producers
    • Process adopted by selected producers
    • Global demand for Sodium Methoxide
    • Pattern of application sectorwise demand
  • Prognosis
Succinic acid can also be used to make polyurethanes and as a platform chemical for specialty applications in food, flavors and fragrances, cosmetics, deicing, and phthalate-free plasticizers. However, the high cost of producing succinic acid from petroleum-based feedstocks has kept the market relatively small at about 50,000 metric tonnes per year. Consultants project this figure to triple in the next five years, as the scale-up of lower-cost, biobased routes opens up new applications. This article discusses the following details :
  • Project of BioAmber
  • Biobased Succinic Acid Projects in pipeline
Rio Tinto has been in aluminium business since the 1950s and ranks itself as the world’s largest primary producer after the Alcan deal in 2007. In 2011, Rio Tinto forecasts its share of bauxite, alumina and aluminium production to be 35.8 million tonnes, 9.2 million metric tonnes and 3.9 million metric tonnes, respectively. This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
With the objective of drawing national focus on algae biofuel and developing an appropriate concept and strategy for research and development and exploitation of algae biofuel opportunities in India, an All India Essay Competition was organized by Nandini Chemical Journal on Algae Biofuels – India’s Opportunities The entries were received from all over India. The following  are the prize winners in the essay competition Ms.P.Sree Devi,                                                     I Prize
Department of Bio Technology
Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University 
Jaunpur – 222 001,
Uttar Pradaesh
Dr.A.Krishnika,                                                      II   Prize
Shri AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre,

Mr.Garima Chuhan,                                               III  Prize
Research Scholar
Department of Chemical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, 
Excerpt from the prize winning essays are published in the journal.
Contributed by: Dr.D M Mohunta
The EU is to warn that the era of cheap energy is over, according to a leaked document obtained by news agency Reuters that outlines how the EU bloc plans to accelerate investment in renewable energy. The draft 2050 energy road map is to be published before the end of the year and is expected to reinforce the messages contained in the 2050 low carbon road map, that was published by the European Commission in March and detailed how the bloc could cut emissions by between 80 and 95 per cent by mid-century. Reuters reported that the latest draft reveals plans for a rapid shift away from fossil fuels and towards renewable energy sources, predicting that by 2050 renewable energy will account for between 55 and 97 per cent of total energy generation. Mirroring the stance of the UK government, the draft document maintains that some investment in fossil fuels infrastructure remains necessary arguing that "maintaining a foot in the global oil market and keeping domestic refineries even when production and consumption is falling at home is important to the EU economy and security". It also claims that gas can provide a valuable bridging fuel through the 2030s, as large-scale renewable projects come online. It hedges its bets on shale gas by arguing more research is required. However, it does predict that demand for coal should fall drastically over the coming decades. Reuters reported that the leaked document acknowledges that energy prices across the bloc will rise over the next two decades before then stabilising, although it notes that prices would climb regardless of whether member states invest in renewables or new carbon-intensive infrastructure. It predicted that energy costs, including transport fuel, could account for 15 per cent of average household income by 2030. Significantly, the document also notes that the long term plans are dependent on an international agreement that ensures other large economies continue along a similar path. "If coordinated action on climate among the main global players fails to strengthen in the next few years, the question arises how far the EU should continue with an energy system transition orientated to decarbonization," the report stated. Do we have even an iota of such thinking in India?
A letter was sent to Ministry of New And Renewable Energy, Government of  India under the Right to Information Act, seeking details about the price support mechanism offered by Government of India for Solar Power. Information received is provided.
Heart valves made using the pig’s valves or heart valves fabricated from bovine pericardium are being used in cardiac surgery. However, these tissues cannot be used in young patients, as they severely calcify within three to five years of implantation. De-cellularised animal tissue will be more durable as it will allow growth of tissue into it when implanted in patients. Moreover, due to the absence of cells, the tissue will not induce any immune rejection problems. Cardiac surgery is set to become cheap when the Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), after three years of research, starts production of cardiac patches using de-cellularised animal tissue which is the first of its kind in India. This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
Top Indian pharma companies  are way ahead of their multinational peers when it comes to launching new drugs in the domestic market. According to a recent Department of Pharmaceuticals (DoP) report, the launch of new medicine brands by Indian pharma companies in the last two years is three times that of leading multinational corporations (MNCs) present in India. Overall, 4,722 new formulations were launched in the Indian market in 2010, up from 4,142 in 2009. The first half of 2011 has witnessed 1,264 drug launches. This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • L-Lysine
  • L-Lysine Joint Venture in Russia
  • 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate
  • Waste to bio ethanol
  • Bio fuel
  • Nitrogen
  • Wax
  • Rare earth - Lanthanum
  • Bisphenol-A
  • Cumene / Bisphenol-A
  • Para-aramid fiber
  • LyondellBasell to close refinery in France
  • Caprolactam
  • Algae based organic fertilizer
  • Sodium chlorate
  • ZEFFLE fluoropolymer coatings
TECHNOLOGY  DEVELOPMENTS The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • Use of bacteria for bomb disposal
  • Extraction of sugar from biomass
  • Biobased Isoprene
AGRO CHEMICAL PAGE The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • Emamectin benzoate
  • Atrazine
PHARMA PAGE The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • Study on Aspirin
  • Focus on Malaria Vaccine
  • Letrozole
  • Paracetamol
  • Blood protein made from rice
ANTI DUMPING PAGE The antidumping measures introduced in  the various countries in the last few weeks on the following products are discussed:
  • Glyphosate
  • Dibenzothiazole disulphide (MBTS)
SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PAGE Safety and accident details on Shell Refinery Fire Cuts Petrochemical Production is provided ENERGY PAGE The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • Biogas seen as major energy
  • Mandatory R-LNG will increase power costs
  • Battleship part to be used in energy project
ENVIRONMENTAL PAGE The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • Talk of treaty ban on mercury
  • Trichloroethylene
PRICE DETAILS Global price trends on the following products are provided :
  • Import/export price in China
  • Butadiene
  • Soda Ash
  • Scientists develop organic LEDs in plastic
  • Labour cost starts troubling Chinese exports
  • Investment in clean energy-Asia set to overtake Europe
  • Tender
  • Chemicals Imported at the Chennai port during the month of August 2011
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