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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, October 2011
KOODANKULAM NUCLEAR POWER|CARBON CAPTURE|KG BASIN|1,6-HEXANEDIOL
Highlights of Some of the ArticlesTALK OF THE MONTH : COUNTER PRODUCTIVE PROTEST AGAINST KOODANKULAM NUCLEAR POWER PROJECT
BARC SCIENTISTS SPEAK ON KOODANKULAM PROCEEDINGS OF THE MEETING AT CHENNAI, INDIA
LAND ACQUISITION FOR INDUSTRIES WHAT ABOUT THE WASTED LAND ?
WHY ARE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES ATTRACTED TOWARDS CHINA ?
CARBON CAPTURE METHODOLOGIES - RECENT GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS
1,6-HEXANEDIOL (HDO) – PRODUCT PROFILE
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALTY CHEMICAL - CYCLOHEXANE DIMETHANOL(CHDM)
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY - MONO ETHYLENE GLYCOL
FORMOSA PLASTICS ORDERED TO CLOSE 28 PLANTS IN TAIWAN
ISSUES RELATING TO ASANSOL-HOWRAH COAL BED METHANE GAS GRID
IEA CUTS GROWTH FORECASTS FOR OIL DEMAND IN 2011-12
ONGC STARTS PUMPING OIL FROM KG BASIN BLOCK
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MEMBRANE - FINDINGS OF A STUDY
BIO TECH PROJECTS OF DSM
WATER DESALINATION PLANTS IN SAUDI ARABIA
REPOWERING THE WIND POWER PROJECTS
TALK OF THE MONTHCOUNTER PRODUCTIVE PROTEST AGAINST KOODANKULAM NUCLEAR POWER PROJECT Tamil Nadu Chief Minister did well to appeal to the agitators in Koodankulam to give up their protest and have faith in the assurances of the scientists and technologists responsible for designing and implementing the Koodankulan power project about the safety aspects . However, she changer her stance a little later. However, it is inappropriate to dismiss the agitators as motivated or having vested interests in conducting the protest. This is not so and the local people have fears about the safety of the project, which is based on the propaganda and campaign of the anti nuclear groups and the media reports. Obviously, the local people who are agitating and even the political leaders involved may not be aware of the technicalities or other complex matters like nuclear reactions, generation of spent fuel, effects of radiations etc. The problem is that the government which is promoting the nuclear project in Kodankulam has not thought it necessary to educate the citizens in simple language and terms about the broad aspects of the project and the safety records of similar projects in other parts of the world. The issue is one of transparency and failure to inform the public by an educative programme. It is true that some safety issues in nuclear projects have occurred in the past in some places in the world. There are reported to be around seventeen such mishaps between 1952 and 2010. Except at Chernobil project in Russia and the recent nuclear mishap at Fukushima in Japan , all the other mishaps in the past were of minor nature. Billlions of units of nuclear power have been generated around the world in the last seven decades or so and the world has been immensely benefited.. Many developed countries now are largely relying on nuclear power projects for their power requirement. Considering the accidents that have been taking place in many areas such as road, rail and aircrafts and in industries , the mishaps that have happened in the nuclear power projects in the world are few and far between. The nuclear mishaps that have occurred in the past are described below December 12, 1952 A partial meltdown of a reactor's uranium core at the Chalk River plant near Ottawa, Canada, resulted after the accidental removal of four control rods. Although millions of gallons of radioactive water poured into the reactor, there were no injuries. October 1957 Fire destroyed the core of a plutonium-producing reactor at Britain's Wind scale nuclear complex - since renamed Sellafield - sending clouds of radioactivity into the atmosphere. An official report said the leaked radiation could have caused dozens of cancer deaths in the vicinity of Liverpool. Winter 1957-'58 A serious accident occurred during the winter of 1957-58 near the town of Kyshtym in the Urals. A Russian scientist who first reported the disaster estimated that hundreds died from radiation sickness. January 3, 1961 Three technicians died at a U.S. plant in Idaho Falls in an accident at an experimental reactor. July 4, 1961 The captain and seven crew members died when radiation spread through the Soviet Union's first nuclear-powered submarine. A pipe in the control system of one of the two reactors had ruptured. October 5, 1966 The core of an experimental reactor near Detroit, Mich., melted partially when a sodium cooling system failed. January 21, 1969 A coolant malfunction from an experimental underground reactor at Lucens Vad, Switzerland, released a large amount of radiation into a cave, which was then sealed. December 7, 1975 At the Lubmin nuclear power complex on the Baltic coast in the former East Germany, a short-circuit caused by an electrician's mistake started a fire. Some news reports said there was almost a meltdown of the reactor core. March 28, 1979 Near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, America's worst nuclear accident occurred. A partial meltdown of one of the reactors forced the evacuation of the residents after radioactive gas escaped into the atmosphere. February 11, 1981 Eight workers were contaminated when more than 100,000 gallons of radioactive coolant fluid leaked into the contaminant building of the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah 1 plant in Tennessee. April 25, 1981 Officials said that around 45 workers were exposed to radioactivity during repairs to a plant at Tsuruga, Japan. April 26, 1986 The world's worst nuclear accident occurred after an explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. It released radiation over much of Europe. Thirty-one people died in the immediate aftermath of the explosion. Hundreds of thousands of residents were moved from the area and a similar number are believed to have suffered from the effects of radiation exposure. SCALE 7 March 24, 1992 At the Sosnovy Bor station near St. Petersburg, Russia, radioactive iodine escaped into the atmosphere. A loss of pressure in a reactor channel was the source of the accident. November 1992 In France's most serious nuclear accident, three workers were contaminated after entering a nuclear particle accelerator in Forbach without protective clothing. Executives were jailed in 1993 for failing to take proper safety measures. November 1995 Japan's Monju prototype fast-breeder nuclear reactor leaked two to three tonnes of sodium from the reactor's secondary cooling system. March 1997 The state-run Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation reprocessing plant at Tokaimura, Japan, contaminated at least 35 workers with minor radiation after a fire and explosion occurred. September 30, 1999 Another accident at the uranium processing plant at Tokaimura, Japan, plant exposed fifty-five workers to radiation. More than 300,000 people living near the plant were ordered to stay indoors. Workers had been mixing uranium with nitric acid to make nuclear fuel, but had used too much uranium and set off the accidental uncontrolled reaction. Year 2010 After 1999, after a gap of more than ten years, the mishap at Fukushima, Daiichi nuclear plants in Japan have taken place in 2010. Indian scenario : In India, twenty nuclear power reactors with installed capacity of 4780 MW are presently in operation. Of these reactors, two are Boiling Water Reactors of 160 MWe each at Tarapur while all others are Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). The safety of these BWR units, which are of the same type as the six units of the Fukushima Dai-ichi station, were re analyzed in India a few years back and reviewed by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Following this, the two BWRs at Tarapur have been renovated, upgraded and additional safety features back fitted to latest safety standards. The PHWRs are of different design than that of BWRs and have multiple, redundant and diverse shutdown systems as well as cooling water systems, The overall safety record of Indian nuclear power reactors have been highly satisfactory. There have been only some minor issues in the past such as in Kaiga atomic power plant when 45 employees suffered radiation poisoning , when radioactive heavy water from the plant contaminated the drinking water meant for staff.
Safety Management The concern for the Koodankulam agitators appear to be about the remote possibility of earthquake happening similar to what happened in Japan and the consequent safety threat for them. This is a far fetched fear . While during an earth-quake, the reactor would be expected to automatically shut down (called a reactor scram), the reactor continues to produce heat equivalent to about 3 to 5 per cent of its full power level even after that. This drops off gradually and is why there needs to be layers of redundant cooling with back-up power ; especially in the event of a major earth-quake, when power from outside the plant would not be expected to be available. Nuclear stations generally have several back-up diesel generators and battery powered systems that supply power to motor-driven cooling systems, which will continue the supply of water or coolant to dissipate heat in the event of a forced shutdown. Safety scientists have been focusing on the reliability of back-up power systems in the nuclear stations and are taking further steps to further reinforce safety measures in the wake of the Japanese nuclear accidents. The agitation in Koodankulam : Accidents do happen in all sorts of activities and it is absolutely necessary that all possible precautions should be taken to ensure that such mishaps would not take place. Hundreds of unfortunate accidents have taken place with people dying on road , in rail and air accidents and these have taken place around the world in both developed and developing countries . Similarly , many industrial explosions have taken place even in the most advanced countries. While continuous efforts are being made to improve the safety conditions and eliminate the mishaps by developing modern engineering and technological practices, no one is suggesting that plane should not fly or automobiles should not run on the road or trains should not be moving or industrial output should be stopped Photographs in the media have shown number of school children in uniforms fasting against the Koodankulam project and one wonders as to how much these young boys and girls really know about the issues involved. Perhaps, even others protesting at the site may not have the understanding of the issues about the reliability of the safety management practices. Having spent thousands of crores of rupees in the project and Tamil Nadu desperately needing power and the safety issues of nuclear power projects being much lesser threat than road , rail or air accidents, the media and the knowledgeable people should come forward and allay the unnecessary fears amongst the local people , who are innocent . Ofcourse, the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, instead of confining herself to only an appeal, must initiate steps to create transparency about the safety issues amongst the common men in the local areas without loss of time, so that they will be convinced.
BARC SCIENTISTS SPEAK ON KOODANKULAM PROCEEDINGS OF THE MEETING AT CHENNAI, INDIAThe meeting was addressed by the following senior nuclear scientists, bureaucrat and chemical engineer.
Mr. G.R. Srinivasan - former Director-Projects, Nuclear power Corporation of India and former Vice chairman of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)
Mr. B.S. Raghavan IAS (Retd.) - former Chief Secretary, Government of Tripura
Prof. Dr. V.Venugopal – former Director, Radiochemistry & Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) Mumbai
Mr. P.K.N.Panicker – former President, Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers & President, Chemical Industries Association.
The meeting was attended by large number of people , including scientists from CSIR lab, college professors, engineers serving in India and abroad, member of legislative assembly and political leaders, college students , social activists and others.
After the conclusion of the speech with power point presentation by the eminent speakers, there was a question and answer session when the learned speakers further explained the details and provided clarifications. The senior scientists who have served in Atomic Energy Commission for over 40 years each and have widespread international exposure in nuclear science and technology strongly said that the Koodankulam power plant represents the best design, operational and safety standards and there is absolutely no ground for the type of fear and anxiety expressed by the local people and some political activists. They explained as to how the design and safety standards are evolved, continuously scrutinized and updated by highly dedicated scientists and technologists in Atomic Energy Commission , who are the pride of India and whose talent and knowledge level
are well recognized internationally.
The scientists also explained about the recent accident in Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan and explained the safety measures that have been incorporated in Koodankulam power plant, that would ensure that Fukushima type of accident would not take place in Koodankulam, even in the unlikely and unfortunate event of earthquake and tsunami occurring in Koodankulam.
The senior scientists also pointed out that 20 nuclear reactors are presently operating in India with excellent safety record and there have been no significant accident at all in the last several decades. Learning from all that has happened all over the world and the Indian Scientists being by nature very conservative, have provided multiple tier safety arrangement in the plant and an emergency situation will come into picture only if all layers of safety systems fail one after the other, an eventuality almost
Finally, the scientists said that the element of safety risk in Koodankulam is only as much as or even less than the safety risk involved in other normal activities such as air travel , road traffic etc. This is because the Koodamkulam plant is provided with a passive cooling system for 72 hours during an emergency. By way of conclusion, the scientists said that it is not possible to explain the technicalities in a detailed manner to the common man and political personalities, since they involve in depth engineering and technological factors. They appealed to the people to have faith in the Indian scientists and technologists serving in Atomic Energy Commission and other specialized agencies who are as much concerned about the safety and well being of the people as anyone else. They also offered to go and speak to anyone at any level to explain the details if invited. They regretted that they are not being called to explain by those who agitate and have unnecessary fears.
The safety drills and other awareness steps undertaken recently and which seem to have frightened the local people, were only intended to be an awareness programme, so that the public will be in the know of what to do and how to act in case of an emergency. The fear , according to the scientists, is unwarranted and uncalled for.
The senior bureaucrat pointed out that in the case of Koodankulam power plant “there is public relations disaster” and the government have failed to communicate with the people in effective manner . Though the agitating people may not be technologically well informed , however, they will understand if the scientists and the technologists would speak to them “in communicable language”. He also pointed out that there is difference of opinion even amongst the scientists and technologists and such differences
expressed in open forum are contributing to creation of confusion amongst people. The scientists have to put their heads together and take a united stand.
The senior chemical engineer pointed out several instances relating to safety issues in industries and stressed how the design features of the plant can largely take care of the safety risks.
Finally, during the interactive session, the consensus view that emerged was that there is a communication gap between the government and the people. The scientists and technologists involved in designing and implementing the Koodankulam project should take a leading role in allaying the fears of the people, instead of leaving it to the politicians and bureaucrats.
LAND ACQUISITION FOR INDUSTRIES - WHAT ABOUT THE WASTED LAND?Is it Industry versus Agriculture ?
While hundreds of acres of agricultural land are sought to be converted into industrial land for setting up projects, there have been no occasion when the existing industrial land has been proposed for conversion to agricultural land. This obviously, implies that the Government and the investors believe that there would be nothing wrong if industrial growth would take place at the cost of agricultural growth.
In the last few decades, thousands of agricultural land have been lost as they were acquired for industrial purposes. There is need to introspect carefully as to whether more automobiles should be produced by converting the land hitherto producing wheat , rice or vegetables.
Welfare of weaker sections
The process of acquiring agricultural land for industrial purpose inevitably results in uprooting the economic livelihood of thousands of poor families.
No doubt, compensations are offered to tempt the farmers to give up their land but with the inflation and eroding rupee, the real value of the compensation amount becomes less than half before too long. Further, while converting such agricultural land, it should be kept in view that while the compensation is paid to the owners of the land, there are large number of agricultural workers who have been working in the land and they would permanently lose their employment opportunities.
While economic growth due to industrialization is cited as the justification for acquiring land for industrial purposes , the loss of economic growth due to cessation of agricultural operations are yet to be studied and quantified and the negative impact assessed on national scale. A cost benefit analysis is likely to make it clear that productive agricultural operations would contribute to greater measure of overall socio economic growth of India than using the same piece of land for industrial purposes in many cases.
Wasted industrial land
As the government and industrial houses are setting up new special economic zones and industrial estates, what about the land that have already been acquired for industrial purposes and remaining wasted now ?
It is well known that around 50% of the industries already set up in small, medium or large scale sector have become sick due to one reason or the other, belonging to diverse sectors such as light engineering, heavy engineering , chemical , pharmaceuticals, textiles etc. There are many industrial units across India that have been remaining closed for more than ten years now with wasted land , building in bad shape and rusted equipment. Such units look like ghost centres.
Many instances can be readily cited. For example, in SIPCOT industrial estate in Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu, a project known as Indag Products Ltd. has been remaining closed for over fifteen years now occupying more than 30 acres. At the same time, SIPCOT, a government of Tamil Nadu undertaking is seeking to acquire more agricultural land in Cuddalore area for creating new industrial estate !
A nation wide survey is yet to be carried out to assess the extent of such wasted land available in the existing industrial estates and industrial zones in India.
When there are many sick industries remaining closed for several years occupying huge area of land , why not such wasted land be put to use for setting up new industrial projects , instead of taking the painful route of converting valuable agricultural land into industrial land?
Need for sensible government policy
It is necessary that the government of India and state governments should apply their mind to this task of not letting the industrial land remain unutilized for unduly long time , for whatever may be the reasons.
A policy decision should be taken that any industrial land remaining unutilized or with inoperative factory premises for more than three years should be acquired by the government and sold in public auction. The government would be able to come across thousands of acres of land and industrial sheds, that can be brought back to the effective industrial use. This would bring down drastically the need for acquiring agricultural land for industrial purposes, which are becoming counter productive and in many cases even appear to be foolish.
WHY ARE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES ATTRACTED TOWARDS CHINA?Contributed by: Swaminathan Venkataraman
Director, Nandini Consultancy (S) Pte. Ltd, Singapore
E-mail:email@example.com It can be now said with confidence that there are only a very few large sized companies in the world, who do not have their presence in China, either in research functions or in manufacturing or in trading. There are no multinational organization today, who do not have presence in China in one form or the other. Most of such ventures of multinational companies in China are based on mutually beneficial technical and financial collaboration arrangements with the Chinese companies. There appear to be high level of comfort amongst the multinational companies operating in close cooperation with the Chinese companies. The investments by some of the multinational companies in China have been really huge such as BP (around US$4.7 billion), Shell (around US$4 billion) and BASF (around US$5 billion). It is not only multinational companies based in Europe and USA that have been investing in China in a big way, but companies from other regions have not been left behind. For example, Kuwait National Petroleum Company and Russia’s Rosneft Oil have won approval to build large refining/petrochemical projects in China.Brazilian state oil company Petrobras and Venezuelan state oil company PDVSA have signed joint venture agreements with Chinese partners. Several important Indian companies like Tata, Dr.Reddy’s Laboratories, Aurobindo Pharma have significant presence in China. This article further discusses the following details:
- Factors that attract multinational companies
- How is China different for other countries?
- Investment climate and business confidence
- China’s dependence for technology on multinational companies
- Issues facing multinational companies
- Review of business models and investment strategies
CARBON CAPTURE METHODOLOGIES RECENT GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTSLEVEL OF CO2 GLOBAL EMISSION Global Co2 emission In 2010 - 30.6 giga tonne Increase in emission in 2010 over 2009 - 1.6 giga tonne Likely emission in 2050 if the present trend would continue - 57 giga tonne Content of Co2 in atmosphere in 2010 - 385 ppm By 2050, the content of Co2 may become 550 ppm This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
1,6-HEXANEDIOL (HDO) – PRODUCT PROFILEChemical Name 1,6-hexanediol CAS Number 629-11-8 Formula HOCH2(CH2)4CH2OH Alternate name 1,6-Hexamethylene Glycol
1,6-Dihydroxyhexane Appearance White, waxy hygroscopic solid Specification Appearance White solid Assay 99.5%min Flash point 137 Acid value 0.1max mgKOH/g Melt Point 41-42 Saponify value 0.5 max mgKOH/g Chromaticity 20 max Moisture 0.1% max
Product applications 1,6-hexanediol is used in application sectors such as the following:
- Polyester coatings
- Advantages of 1,6-hexanediol as intermediate:
- Global producers and their profile
- Indian scenario
- Indian producer
- Indian trade analysis
- Sample of individual imports
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALTY CHEMICAL - CYCLOHEXANE DIMETHANOL(CHDM)Chemical name 1,4–Cyclohexanedimethanol;
CHDM; 1,4-Bis(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexane CAS No 105-08-8 Molecular formula C6H10(CH2OH)2 Appearance White waxy solid Commercial sample consists of a mixture of cis and trans isomers, as seen for other disubstituted derivatives of cyclohexane. Key attributes of CHDM
- Excellent corrosion resistance in fiberglass reinforced plastics
- Excellent hardness with some flexibility
- Good heat resistance and electrical properties
- High crystallinity
- High glass transition temperature relative to linear aliphatic glycols
- Highly reactive hydroxyl groups
- Product application
- Product Specification
- Global producers
- Indian Import
- Sample of individual import
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY - MONO ETHYLENE GLYCOLAlternative Name 1,4-Ethanediol, MEG, 1,2-Dihydroxyethane, 1,2-Ethandiol, 2-Hydroxyethanol Appearance Clear, colourless liquid Chemical Formula C2H6O2 CAS No. 107-21-1 Purity 99.8% min Odour Mild characteristic Specific Gravity 1.115 to 1.1156 Solubility in Water Miscible Stability Stable under ordinary conditions pH 2.14 Product application Mono ethylene glycol (MEG) is an important precursor for the manufacture of polyester staple fibre, polyester firbre yarn, polyester chips, polyester films and polyethylene terephthalate. Other uses of MEG include the following
- Chemical Intermediate for resins Alkyd-type resins (synthetic rubbers, adhesives, surface coatings)
- Stabilizer against gel formation
- Freezing point depression
- As solvent coupler Deicing fluids (aircraft, runway)
- Heat transfer fluids (gas compressors, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, process chillers)
- All-weather automotive antifreeze and coolants
- Water-based formulations (adhesives, latex paints,asphalt emulsions)
- Solvent Medium for suspending conductive salt in electrolytic capacitors
- Explosives Used predominantly in the production of nitroglycerine
This article further discusses the following details:
- Annual import of MEG in India
- Annual export of MEG from India
- Indian supply scenario
- Indian producers and their production
- New project under planning
- Indian demand scenario
- Indian demand
- Growth rate in demand
- Projected demand supply gap analysis
- Global supply scenario
- Important global producers
- Closure of plants
- Projects recently completed and under implementation– Period 2010 to 2015
- Global demand scenario
- Global pattern of applicationwise demand
- Global price trends
- Process Technology
FORMOSA PLASTICS ORDERED TO CLOSE 28 PLANTS IN TAIWANFormosa Plastics has been ordered to close 28 major manufacturing facilities at Mailiao, Taiwan following the seventh fire to break out there in recent weeks. The latest fire occurred on July 30, 2011. This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
ISSUES RELATING TO ASANSOL-HOWRAH COAL BED METHANE GAS GRIDONGC pioneered the (pilot) coal-bed methane (CBM) production in India, more than a decade ago. It was also the first company to have drawn up a mega (Rs. 10,000 million) commercial production plan as early as in 2004. However, in a recent submission, ONGC literally spiked the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board’s (PNGRB) plan to create India’s first CBM grid the much needed gas delivery infrastructure connecting the CBM assets in Bengal and Jharkhand with the consumption centre in and around Kolkata. The development came in the middle of a bidding round for the project, originally slated to be closed in August 2011. This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
IEA CUTS GROWTH FORECASTS FOR OIL DEMAND IN 2011-12In its monthly oil market report, the Paris-based agency said that financial and economic headwinds were gathering momentum and significant economic threats skewed the demand side risk to the downside. David Fyfe, head of the IEA’s oil industry and markets division, said the oil market had been tight in recent months but the balance could ease if there were no further disruptions to supply. Oil prices fell after publication of the IEA report, with Brent crude oil futures for October slipped by around 50 cents. The contract traded around $112.00, down 25 cents on the day. This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
ONGC STARTS PUMPING OIL FROM KG BASIN BLOCKONGC has started pumping oil from a deep-sea field in KG Basin, marking its entry in the promising high-tech area and boosting its prospects to make more discoveries. The KG Basin, where Reliance operates India's biggest gas field, is rich in hydrocarbons, but the deep-sea region poses several technological challenges and extreme conditions. ONGC has begun initial production from the GS 15 block and is currently producing around 2,000 barrels of oil per day. Gas production from the other block, GI, should begin by early next year. These blocks hold 21 million tonne of oil reserves plus oil equivalent gas. This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MEMBRANE - FINDINGS OF THE STUDYCountries seeing the faster growth include BRIC countries and others with large, developing industries bases and stressed local water resources. Combined, the US and China are expected to account for 46% of the market gains between 2010 and 2015, while North America, the largest regional market, accounted for one third of global membrane sales in 2010 and will increase 8.3% annually through 2015. This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
BIO TECH PROJECTS OF DSMTraditional yeast can only digest C6 sugars, but some lignocellulosic feedstock sources are composed of nearly half C5 sugars. Depending on the feedstock, one can as much as double the output of fermentation using DSM yeast. The company had already been developing yeast that digests both C5 and C6 sugars, making the deal complementary. DSM also provides the enzymes and treatments needed to extract the sugar from agricultural waste in the first place, and having a position in both yeast and enzyme technologies is a clear advantage for development. This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
WATER DESALINATION PLANTS IN SAUDI ARABIASaudi Arabia is the world’s largest producer of desalinated water accounting for more than 18 percent of the total desalinated water produced throughout the world. Between 50 and 70 percent of the Kingdom’s potable water is desalinated in the existing 27 plants, a process that requires a lot of energy estimated at 1.5 million barrels of oil a day. Oil is burnt in two-thirds of Saudi desalinated plants. This article further discusses the following details
- Solar power projects in Saudi Arabia
- Polysilicon facility
REPOWERING THE WIND POWER PROJECTSSpanish wind-turbine company Gamesa Corporacion Tecnologica SA, has commissioned two repowering projects in India. The wind mill projects of LMW near Coimbatore and Fenner India near Nagercoil are the only repowered wind farms in India. At Aaralvoimozhi in southern Tamil Nadu, Gamesa Wind Turbines Pvt Ltd recently completed replacing 11 old wind mills of 225 kW capacity each, with three of its own 850-kW machines. The capacity remains roughly the same, but the new machines, with their ability to rotate even in low-wind speeds, are generating more electricity. This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.
OTHER FEATURESPLANT CLOSURES The article discusses the plans for closure of Solar panel maker Solyndra files for bankruptcy ANTI DUMPING PAGE The antidumping measures introduced in the various countries in the last few weeks on the following products are discussed:
- Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM)
- Fatty alcohol
- Carbon black
- Phthalic anhydride
- Boiler explosion in Gujarat
- Fire in agrochemical company
- Blast kills 1, injures 4 at French nuke waste site
- Oil pipeline fire kills 120 in Kenya
- Mexico oil spill bill to cost BP$30 billion
- Fire mishap in Orchid Chemicals, Chennai
- Gas leak at Sequent Scientific, Maharashtra
- Resin-coated proppants
- PTZ phenothiazine
- Pigment dispersion facility
- Selective emitter solar cells
- Phosphate deposits in Iraq
- Detergent Alcohols from cellulosic biomass
- Thiochemicals / bio-methionine
- Solid isoprene rubber
- Poly alphaolefins
- Hydro processing catalyst
- Copper catalyst
- Gas chemicals complex in Uzbekistan
- Biobased BDO,butadiene
- West Bengal chemical hub
- Fiber Glass JV
- Paediatric nimesulide sale
- E-waste material generation in India
- Soda ash
- Coal to methanol plant
- Lignite gasification technologies
- Fine particle separation could replace centrifuges
- Bio desulphurization
- Seawater analyzer requiring no chemicals
- Microbes, nuclear waste and power
- Bacteria to fight hospital bugs
- MTP process to Chinese coal company
- Ineos licenses polypropylene technology in China
- Plastics photo voltaic cells
- CSMCRI’s technology to upgrade livelihood of saltpan workers
- Dripzyme - Crop nutrient
- Noni and its many benefits
- Solar power project in Gujarat
- Revival of abandoned mines
- Caustic soda
- Ex factory price in China
- Chemicals Imported At The Chennai Port During The Month Of July 2011
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