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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Jan 2007

LACTOSE|Carbomer|Aniline|Psyllium|Isabgol|Mushroom industry|Algae biofuel

Highlights of Some of the Articles
THE STRATEGIES FOR INNOVATION It is said that United States of America continues to be the leading country in recognition of new ideas and innovations. There are other countries like Japan and Singapore which spend substantial money by way of venture funds and to encourage innovative technologies. It is reported that in India , the flow of funds towards the development of new ideas is four times that of Japan. However, the achievement in India in the R&D front is not commensurate with the investments made. The best of Indian brains choose to run to USA seeking opportunities for carrying out productive R&D work and initiating meaningful innovative efforts, which is a sad reflection on the state of affairs in India. Obviously, innovations can come only by creating right climate of growth and mere spending huge amount of money and setting up number of associations, committees or commissions cannot help the task. While the government has its role to play in encouraging innovation which is a necessary condition for growth in any society, the individual organizations have to evolve strategies for identifying the areas of research work and assessing the quality of innovation. It is necessary to realize that in any organization, innovation is essentially a group activity. Often , it is not the result of an individual’s work but a result of many and diversed thinkers working together in an organization. Such thinkers may not be working in perfect harmony but they generally move in the same direction. Their collective technical, business and entrepreneurial IQs support an agile, self supporting, collaborative environment of tests and trials, where the right conditions for innovations would be fostered and high quality innovations would take place. In working out the strategy of innovation, there has to be a set and clearly defined objective and a purposeless R&D activity can be a waste of time. A successful innovation should lead to increased revenue and income for an organization and society, either directly or as a component of larger business strategy. The goal should be to strengthen the commercialization of technologies at various levels, that either advance the current technologies or replace the existing ones. They must result in new products or improvement in existing products, which should be judged by the increased revenue that they would generate in the course of time. Measuring the impact of innovation and its effectiveness is very important and the best way of measuring the impact is by assessing the increased income that the innovation brings about. Every organization should work out a clear cut strategy based on the strength and weakness of the organization , to identify the areas where efforts towards innovations should be putforth. This requires a critical look within the organization for identifying the need and opportunities and nurturing the innovation wherever it exists within the company. Research shows that the companies that excel at true innovation out perform those that simply focus on incremental product innovations. The support and understanding of the top management of the organizations for R&D efforts and in deciding the innovation strategy is very important. The structure and culture of innovation must stem from the top of the organization and from the Chief Executive. The top management should realize and should also make it known to everyone in the organization that innovation is a subject of priority and is an important part of the company’s overall growth portfolio. Such active involvement of the top management is necessary to set the tone of generating and encouraging innovative practices and avoid any negative critical view towards R&D efforts, some of which may fail to meet the expectations. In working out the avenues for innovation , it is necessary to keep in mind that these activities are often incremental and not radical changes. In the existing organizations, it would be found that such innovations may not create entirely new processes or business models and may not even be spectacular. Nevertheless, if they would bring improved profit and income, the efforts should be considered as adequate and worthwhile. Therefore, careful and systematic monitoring the progress and return on investment of the R&D efforts is necessary to ensure that the R&D activities are viewed in proper perspectives and the innovation portfolio is balanced.
Lactose is a naturally occurring simple disaccharide carbohydrate or sugar and is obtained from the milk of cows as a by-product of the dairy industry. It is a major component of whey. Chemically, lactose is the disaccharide of the simple sugars D-galactose and D-glucose. In other words, the lactose molecule comprises one molecule of D-galactose chemically linked to one molecule of D-glucose. Lactose exists in two isomeric forms, known as alpha and beta lactose. Product Characteristics: Alternate Names 4-O-Beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-D-Glucose 4-(Beta-D-Galactosido)-D- Glucose, Milk sugar CAS No. 63-42-3 Molecular formula C 12 H 22 O 11 Odour Odourless Taste Faintly sweet taste Solubility Soluble in water Product Specification: TECHNIQUE I.P/B.P/J.P/U.S.P SPECIFICATION - I.P / B.P SPECIFICATION - J.P / U.S.P Description White or Crystaline powder;Odourless, taste slightly sweet White or Crystaline Powder; Odourless Solubility Satisfactory Satisfactory Identification(B & C)-I.P (B,C,D)-B.P 3 - J.P /U.S.P Satisfactory Satisfactory Purity - J.P / U.S.P a) Acidity NMT 0.4 ml of 0.1 M NaoH required NMT 0.4 ml of 0.1 M NaoH required b) Clarity, Color, Odour of Solution. Clear and not intensly colored than reference solution BY S7 Clear and Colourless. Absorbance at 400 nm should not be more than 0.04 c) Specific Optical Rotation. +54.4 degree to +55.9 degree (dry basis) +54.4 degree to +55.9 degree (dry basis) This article further discusses the following details:
  • Product applications
  • Annual Indian Imports
  • Annual Indian Exports
  • Indian producers
  • Demand drivers
  • Growth rate in demand
  • Indian demand
  • Manufacturing process
  • Process flow sheet
This article discusses the application aspects and process technology as well as Indian import/export trends for Carbomer Resin The Carbomer resins (-910, -934, -934P, -940, -941,and -962) are synthetic, high molecular weight, nonlinear polymers of acrylic acid cross-linked with a polyalkenyl polyether They are chemically similar to each other, differing only in ascending molecular weights (which range from Carbomer-910 to Carbomer-962). They contain between 98.7% and 99.9% acrylic acid. Parameters Properties Appearance White fluffy powder Residual solvent, ppm (benzene) 1000 Bulk density (kg/cubic meter) 208 Loss on drying, % maximum 2 PH 1 wt % dispersion 2.5 to 3 Sulphated ash, % 2.5 The finely divided, free-flowing Carbomer powders readily disperse in water to yield low viscosity acid solution.
The Carbomer polymers are hygroscopic in nature. Because of their ability to absorb and retain water, these polymers swell to many times their original volume..
Although swelling is inherently caused by their hydrophilic nature, .maximum volume swell does not occur in water until the polymers are converted to partial organic or inorganic salts. The increased volume is stable at al pH levels and increases as neutralization increases. Maximum volume occurs at 50 to 90% neutralization with a neutralization of 75% normally occurring at pH 7.0. This article further discusses the following details:
  • Reactivity
  • Product Application
  • Sectorwise Application-Cosmetic, Pharmaceutical and chemical and industrial specialities
  • Safety
  • Storage
  • Packaging
  • Process Outline
  • Indian Producer
  • Indian Imports & Sample of Imports at Chennai Port
  • Important global manufacturers
  • New projects
Appearance Colourless to pale yelow liquid Molecular formula C 3 H 5 NH 2 CAS number 142-04-1 Solubility Soluble in water, alcohol and ether Application Sectors
  • Rubber Sector
  • Dyestuff
  • Dye intermediates
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Isocyanates
  • Photographic Chemicals
  • Derivative chemicals
  • Miscellaneous applications – Fungicides, insecticides, animal repellents, defoliants and explosives
This article further discusses the following details:
  • Indian manufacturers and their installed capacity
  • Units which stopped production
  • Indian production trend
  • Annual imports
  • Annual exports
  • Anti dumping measures in India
  • Demand
  • Global scenario
  • Global installed capacity
  • Global regionwise capacity pattern
  • Major global producers and their installed capacity
  • Future global installed capacity
  • Global demand driver and industry trend
  • Global demand
  • Global pattern of demand
  • Process technology
  • Future global scenario for Aniline
  • Future demand supply scenario in India
Psyllium is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage. The genus Plantago contains over 200 species. P. ovata and P. psyllium are produced commercially in several European countries, the former Soviet Union, Pakistan, and India. Plantago seed known commercially as black, French or Spanish psyllium is obtained from P. psyllium and P. arenaria. Seed produced from P. ovata is known in trading circles as white or blonde psylium, Indian Plantago or Isabgol. Isabgol, the common name in India for P. ovata, comes from the Persian words .isap. and ghol that mean horse ear, which is descriptive of the shape of the seed. India dominates the world market in the production and export of psyllium. Psyllium research and field trials in the U.S. have been conducted mainly in Arizona and also in Washington.
Recent interest in psyllium has arisen primarily due to its use in high fiber breakfast cereals and from claims that these high fiber cereals containing psyllium are effective in reducing cholesterol.
Several studies point to a cholesterol reduction attributed to a diet that includes dietary fiber such as psyllium. Research reported in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concludes that the use of soluble-fiber cereals is an effective and well tolerated part of a prudent diet for the treatment of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Research also indicates that psyllium incorporated into food products is more effective at reducing blood glucose response than use of a soluble fiber supplement that is separate from the food. Although the cholesterol reducing properties and glycemic response properties of psyllium containing foods are fairly well documented, the effect of long term inclusion of psyllium in the diet has not been determined. Cases of allergic reaction to psyllium containing cereal have been documented. This article also contains the following details:
  • General details and Application
  • Growth Habit
  • Environment requirements
  • Climate
  • Soil
  • Seed Preparation and Germination
  • Cultural practices
  • Yield Potential and Performance Results
  • Economics of production and markets
RADIATION PROCESSING OF FOOD AND FOOD PRODUCTS RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Preservation of food by ionising is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing. Food preservation by ionising radiation involves controlled applications of energy such as gamma rays, x-rays and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, foods and food ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. Some of the major technological benefits that can be achieved by radiation processing of food include:
  • Disinfestations of insect pests in stored products;
  • Inhibition of sprouting in tubers, bulbs and rhizomes;
  • Delay in ripening and senescence in fruits and vegetables;
  • Destruction of microbes responsible for food spoilage;
  • Elimination of parasites and pathogens of public health importance in food.
Reference: Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India
Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT)
This article also contains the following details:
  • Application of food irradiation
  • Advantages of radiation processing of food
  • Radiation sources
  • Gamma irradiators
  • X-ray processing
  • Electron Beam (E-Beam)
  • International scenario of food irradiation
  • Common irradiation processed foods in different countries
  • Commercial prospects for food irradiation
MUSHROOM INDUSTRY IN INDIA: STATUS REPORT The edible varieties of Mushroom are considered as a delicious food al over the world. Mushrooms also have nutritive value, vitamins and minerals and are low in calories. Globally, mushrooms are traded mostly in processed form. However, lately fresh mushrooms are preferred over preserved ones in EU and American countries. The Netherlands is the largest exporter of canned button mushrooms with a market share of about 38.5%. China and France are the other major exporting countries. The major importing countries are USA, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, France, Switzerland, Japan and Malaysia. Germany is the largest importer of button mushroom followed by USA, France, Belgium, Sweden, Norway and the UK. This article also contains the following details:
  • Present Indian Production level
  • Exports
  • Category wise India’s exports of mushrooms during 2003-04 to 2004-05
  • Prospects and challenges
RAISING THE STANDARD OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER Upgrading a plant to meet new discharge standards while working in limited site space presents a unique challenge. A carbon treatment system combined with wet air regeneration proved to be an effective solution, say John Meidl and CC Lu from Siemens Water Technologies. John Meidl is product manager for PACT (powdered activated carbon treatment) Systems Sales for Siemens Water Technologies and CC Lu is Far East regional manager for Siemens Water Technologies.
Courtesy:Filtration + Separation, December 2006
In the early 1990s, engineers at Renda Industrial Park (RIP) in TaSheh, Taiwan, determined that its existing activated sludge system was unable to meet new discharge standards. They needed to find a way to expand its wastewater treatment plant and adequately treat chemical and petrochemical wastewater to meet new effluent standards of <80mg/l COD and <50 mg/l nitrate nitrogen, which would enable the industrial park to continue to discharge directly to a nearby stream. RIP also needed a system that would control volatile hydrocarbon emission and bubble from the aeration zone. This article also contains the following details:
  • Integrated technology
  • PACT system operation
  • WAR system operation
Department of Physics, S.L.I.E.T., Longowal
Distt.-Sangrur-148 106, Punjab; E-mail:
For centuries, Algae has been used as manure. Algae can be used to make biodiesel and can produce vastly superior amounts of oil, compared to terrestrial crops grown for the same purpose. It does not need fresh water or fertilizer. Algae can also be used to produce hydrogen. Algae are used in wastewater treatment facilities, reducing the need for more dangerous chemicals. Algae can be used to capture fertilizers in runoff from farms. If this algae is then harvested, it itself can be used as fertilizer. So far scientists are very much against genetic manipulation of Algae for bioreactor project, because a large quantity of algae is going to be generated which can be put to some use.  This article also contains the following details:
  • General details
  • Process basics
  • Algae to Biofuels
  • Efforts of global Green Solutions, USA
  • Efforts of GreenShift Corporation (USA)
  • Efforts of Oak Ridge National Laboratory
IMPRESSIVE PERFORMANCE OF CAIRN INDIA Cairn India Limited (CIL) has a proven track record of developing hydrocarbon resources in India. As the operator of the Lakshmi field in the Cambay Basin, Cairn commenced natural gas production in less than 30 months following discovery and at the Ravva field in the KG Basin in Andhra Pradesh, the company increased crude oil production from an initial 3,700 barrels of oil and condensate per day (bopd) to present approximately 50,000 bopd. Cairn’s total operated production in India is currently 87,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day which is expected to go up to approximately 200,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day by the end of the decade. To enhance its production, Cairn has plans to invest another US$ 150 million for development of wells in India. The company has so far invested US $ 1.8 billion in India. This article further discusses the following details:
  • Ravva field
  • Project in Rajasthan
  • Lakshmi and Gauri fields
  • CB-X, Ambe fields
  • Future plans
  • Cairn’s plans for Ravva offshore
CLARIANT WANTS TO IMPROVE PROFITS BY CLOSING PLANTS! Clariant plans to raise profits and increase its return on invested capital (ROIC) from about 8%, to 10% by end of 2009, which is the average among specialty chemical producers. . Clariant will reach that goal by reducing its workforce by 10% or 2,200 employees; closing 10% of its 130 production sites; and cutting its number of products by 25% from its current level of 50,000. Most of the plant closures will be in Europe. The company will also reduce net working capital by 3%-4% of sales. The company has already cut the product line within its textile dyes business from 3,000, to 500 during 2006. This article further discusses the following details:
  • Priority business
  • Market share
  • R & D Activity
  • Focus on China, India
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS OF BASF BASF is considering options for using alternative feedstocks including biomass and coal, in several chemical processes, on condition that their use makes economic and commercial sense. There are a number of specific projects that BASF is working on that may consume alternative feedstocks.  This article further discusses the following details:
  • General details
  • Biofuel
  • Evocio
  • Polyhydroxy Butyrate
  • Succinic acid
  • Use of coal
  • Starch enriched potato
RESEARCH EFFORTS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY BY CHEMICAL COMPANIES Chemical companies are striving to create nano composites with improved strength or to create plastics novel properties such as products with high-temperature resistance, scratch resistance, anti-corrosion
properties or a host of other engineered properties.
The unique properties of nanomaterials make them valuable to chemical companies for new product development and for boosting the performance of existing materials. However, the properties that make nanomaterials appealing could also lead to health and environmental hazards, nanotechnology scientists say. Because of their small size, and high surface area-to-volume ratio, nanosize materials behave differently in the body and in the environment than conventional materials. For example, the tiny size of these particles when used in certain formulations for humans has been found to penetrate organs. This article contains the following details:
  • Regulations
  • Efforts of Degussa
  • Efforts of BASF
  • Indian Vanilla Industry at the Cross Roads
  • Update on Carbon Trading
  • Safety and Accident Page
  • Prospects for the Bamboo Industry
  • Process Flow-Sodium Methoxide
  • Technology Development-International/India
  • New Patented Drugs of Novartis
  • Biofuel and Commodity Market Highlights of FAO Study
  • Innovations in Biogas-Ashden Awards
  • Update on Biofuel
  • China News
  • Seafood Processing Industry in Kerala
  • News Round Up-International/India
  • Indian Petroleum Refineries Forging Ahead
  • Pesticide Page
  • Herbal Page-India
  • Pharma Page-Internation/India
  • Update on Biotechnology
  • Agro Chemical Page-International/India
  • Cradle to Cradle Concept in Waste Recycling
  • Plant based rabies vaccine
  • Environmental Page-International/India
  • Energy Page-International/India
  • New Projects-International
  • Business Opportunities
  • Tender
  • Directory of Chemical Industries in China-Manufacturers, Trading Houses and Promotional Organisation - Part XXXXV
  • Chemicals Imported at Chennai Port During the Month of September 2006
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