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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Mar 2009

Coal gasification|Carbon dioxide|Plant closures|Polyvinyl alcohol

Highlights of Some of the Articles
Talk of the Month
JATROPHA BIODIESEL ; THE COUNTRY LOST OPPORTUNITY AT A CRUCIAL TIME When the story of Indian industries would be written in future, it would be inevitably pointed out that the glorious opportunity to exploit jatropha plantation that could have given many benefits to India during the period of global crude oil price crisis was lost due to lack of clarity in the policies of the government . The Indian biodiesel industry is facing crisis at the present time and suffers from lack of confidence. This would be readily evident to any one who would care to discuss the state of affairs with any individual or organizations who are involved in the biodiesel industry. It is sad that the Indian jatropha biodiesel industry has become mere media hype. If anyone were to be held responsible for such state of affairs, the blame should be squarely laid on the Government of India and those incharge of running the government in the last few years. Recently, a genuine organization from Europe wanted to buy 1000 tonnes of jatropha vegetable oil (not trans esterified oil) from India and inspite of hectic efforts over a few months, the potential overseas buyer could not even buy 50 tonnes of jatropha oil from India. The overseas buyer felt that whatever the publicity given with regard to Indian biodiesel industry is unreal. The overseas buyer said that claims about the Indian biodiesel industry are only exaggerated. A few years back, there was huge euphoria in India about the prospects for jatropha based biodiesel projects and several seminars and training programmes were held all over India. Former President of India Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam went to the extent of planning jatropha farm in Raj Bhawan in Delhi. Several state governments announced special schemes to promote and encourage jatropha cultivation. There was enthusiastic response from the entrepreneurs and investors and at one time, it was even claimed that India would become forerunner in the global biodiesel industry. But nothing of that sort has happened. What is the reason? A careful analysis would indicate that jatropha biodiesel projects could not take off in India, since Government of India failed to provide any meaningful encouragement to the industry by way of extending support in price mechanism and technology optimization measures. Trans esterified jatropha oil which is produced from jatropha vegetable oil, has to be blended with petroleum diesel and buyers for trans esterified jatropha oil could be only government owned oil corporations at present. Indian Oil Corporation, obviously with the approval of the Government of India, fixed unrealistic price for jatropha trans esterified oil for its procurement. The price was found to be uneconomical by the jatropha industry, as the offered price could hardly cover the cost of production. What was surprising was that the government was paying 100 US$ and more and even upto 140US$ per barrel of crude in foreign exchange but was unwilling to extend subsidy support in rupees to the Indian jatropha industry that could have brought great benefits in several ways. With the price of crude oil now coming down to the level of 35 US$ to 40 US$ per barrel , enthusiasm for jatropha based biofuel appears to have gone away in India . Though the Government of India has been talking about jatropha biofuel plans and schemes from time to time, the lack of thrust in the scheme of the government is evident. The project promoters who have acquired land for cultivation of jatropha for planting and have set up facilities for extraction of oil and trans esterification of oil are now keeping their fingers crossed, not knowing as to what is in store for them in future. What is particularly surprising is that even after facing extremely difficult conditions due to the huge increase in the price of crude oil in the past , there appears to be no perceptible hurry on the part of the Government of India to speed up jatropha bio diesel projects ,which is the only way to reduce dependence on crude oil imports in significant manner and avoid vulnerability to the international crude oil price fluctuations. The government appears to be over anxious to spend several thousand million of rupees for setting up nuclear power projects which have evoked controversies, but is not showing even fraction of such interest in the jatropha biodiesel projects.
Several experts predict that the price of the crude oil would once again shoot up when the present recessionary trends in the global economy would go away.
When this would happen, it is likely that India would once again face difficult conditions in the crude oil front. The jatropha biofuel project opportunities would remain unexploited.
CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGY Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be captured in significant quantities from the following five main sources,.
  • Ammonia production
  • Power generation from fossil fuels
  • Industrial production facilities, such as cement, coal-to-chemicals, and steel plants
  • Energy processing, such as coal and gas-to-liquids operations
  • Well heads at gas fields
Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technology is still at an experimental and development stage. It is estimated that $30bn to 50bn would be needed to realize a global cooperation goal from the G8 nations to launch 20 full-scale CCS demonstration projects in the next few years. The Inter governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has estimated that Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technology (CCS) can reduce global emissions by up to 55% by 2100. The Paris based International Energy Agency (IEA) reported in its Energy Technology Perspectives 2008 report that CCS would need to contribute nearly one fifth of the necessary emissions reductions to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by 50% by 2050. The global CCS market value is expected to increase to over $236.3bn by 2012 from $88.7bn in 2007, a compounded annual growth rate of 22%. This article discusses the following details :
  • Process for CO2 Capture
  • Technology Developments
    • Efforts of Dow/BASF
    • Efforts of Eastman Chemical
    • Efforts of Praxair / Air Products
    • Efforts of Linde
    • Efforts of GE
  • Carbon Dioxide to Fuel Technology
  • Bacteria that can convert CO2 into useful compound
  • New Method Developed for Cponverting Carbon Dioxide to Cyclic Carbonates
  • CO2 Pollution Turning Oceans More Acidic
  • Carbon Dioxide mooted as raw for Polycarbonate manufacture
  • Utilisation of Landfill Gas
Appearance                             White or light yellow crystalline powder
Molecular formula                     C6H14N2O2
L-Lysine HCl – Product specification Item Requirement Assay 99.5% L-Lysine Content, % 78.8 Chlorine (Cl) 19.39% Crude Protein, % 94.4 HCI content, % 19.7 Ammonium (NH4) Not more than 0.02% Sulphate (SO4) Not more than 0.020% Iron (Fe) Not more than 10 ppm Heavy metals, Pb Not more than 10 ppm Arsenic (As2O3) Not more than 10 ppm Other amino acids, (50 μg) Not detectable Loss on drying (105 , 3 hours) 0.10% Residue on ignition, sulphated 0.03% Loss on Drying, % 1.5 Salmonella NEGATIVE Application
  • Animal feed Used in pig and poultry feed
  • Pharmaceutical industry: Used as nutrient; appetite stimulant and for parenteral protein supplementation during various pathological conditions
  • Food industry Used in food enrichment
  • Derivatives of Lysine: Lysine salicylate Lysine salicylate is analgesic, antipyretic
This article contains the following details :
  • Indian Producer
  • Producers of L-Lysine monohydrochloride
  • New Projects
  • Imports-Annual Imports during the last five years & Pattern of countrywise imports (Period 2007-08)
  • Estimated growth rate in demand
  • Process
  • Global scenario
    • Global demand for Feed grade L-Lysine
    • Global demand for pharma grade L-Lysine
    • Global Installed capacity of L-Lysine HCl
    • Estimated global growth rate in demand
    • Global demand drivers
    • Global manufacturers of feed grade L-Lysine and their installed capacity
    • Plant closure
    • Pharmaceutical grade L-Lysine producers
  • Prognosis
Micro crystalline cellulose powder (MCCP) , a naturally occurring polymer, is derived from high quality wood pulp. MCCP is white, odourless, tasteless and free from organic and inorganic contamination, insoluble in water, dilute acids and most solvents. It is stable, safe and physiologically inert. Application sector
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Food
This article further discusses the following details :
  • Application in pharmaceutical sector
    • For direct compression tableting
    • For wet granulation
  • Application in food industry
  • Non food applications
  • Substitution products in tablet formulations
  • Manufacturing process
  • Indian manufacturers of MCCP
  • Demand
  • Global scenario
    • Major global manufacturers
    • Demand supply pattern
    • Growth rate in demand
  • Sample of imports in India
  • Sample of exports
The article discusses the plans for closure of selected units by the following players
  • INEOS Chlorvinyls to close UK plants
  • Texas Petrochemicals idles units
  • Sunoco to close polypropylene plant
  • Celanese may close acetic acid/VAM unit
  • Ecolab and Nalco to close plants
  • Closures in Guangdong province in China
  • BASF closes paint plant
  • OxyChem to close Kentucky PVC site
The antidumping measures introduced in  the various countries in the last few weeks on the following products are discussed:
  • Soda ash, oxo alcohol
  • Phenol
  • Terephthalic acid
  • Polyester staple fiber
  • Barium carbonate
The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • Phenol
  • Activated carbon
  • Butyl rubber
  • Toluene di-isocyanate
  • Phosphates
  • Sulphuric acid
  • Peptide
  • Dimethyl fumarate
  • Regulations proposed on diacetyl
  • Regulations on dichloromethane
  • Update On Nanotechnology
  • Polysilicon Manufacturing Techniques - Recent Developments In China
  • Tender
  • New Projects - International
  • Chemicals Imported At The Chennai Port During The Month Of December - 2008
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