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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Mar 2008

Nanotech|Natural gas condensate|Molecular sieves|Carbon fibre|Jojoba

Highlights of Some of the Articles
Talk of the Month
RELIABLE STATISTICS CRUCIAL INPUTS FOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY The statistics scenario in India is poor and inadequate and it often misleads rather than informing. It is necessary that the officially published information should be authentic and accurate. Unfortunately they are not. The timely collection and dissemination of correct data on imports, exports, capacity expansions,new projects under planning/ implementation, price trends, production level etc are essential and vitally necessary for clearing uncertainties related to demand supply and price, which affect the producers, consumers and
trading houses.
Decision on sourcing, inventory, processing. marketing, cash flow management etc are critically dependent on reliable information. The quality of data collection,
compilation and dissemination should not be sacrificed to save on cost of management, men and material and the job should be carried out with utmost efficiency.
It is well known that the chemical industries in India are driven from pillar to post to collect essential information and data from the published sources. One of the vital inputs for the chemical industries is import and export data. While a few ports like Chennai, Mumbai, JNPT publish the export-import data, there are number of other ports particularly in Gujarat, who do not publish such import and export data. Even amongst the data published from ports, there are obvious errors, perhaps in typing the data, which seem to be released without adequate proof reading. Government of India brings out the All India export and import data but in the case of many items, the details do not agree with the individual port bulletins . There is also considerable confusion in classifying the products under HS code numbers. In many cases, different products are mixed under same headings. In recent times, port bulletins do not contain name of the importers and exporters and as a result one cannot know as to who have imported or who have exported. While the port data lack reliability to some extent, the annual reports of several companies conceal more matters than what it reveals. Annual reports of very few companies contain detailed information on consumption of raw materials and utilities. Therefore, on reading the annual reports, one cannot assess the performance efficiency of the units in a meaningful way. The market survey agencies in India has the most difficult task of collecting the information and analyzing the data and interpreting them for arriving at appropriate conclusion and recommendation. Many companies particularly multi national organizations refuse to provide even basic information about their organizations, often terming them as proprietary information. In view of such uncertainties and unreliable information network, the market study often becomes a subject of guesstimates made on the basis of the expertise and experience of market survey personnel and not based on actual facts and figures. Unfortunately, the industrial associations in India do not pay adequate attention in disseminating the data and information about the performance and trend of the particular industries coming under their fold. On the other hand, they only function as pressure groups. As a result, it appears that the over all statistics scenario in Indian chemical and related industries are in chaotic state. It is high time that the Government of India and state governments should understand and appreciate the need for developing and providing reliable statistics and data, that would facilitate the planning and decision taking process in India. The government has to strengthen its departments and also impose an element of compulsion on the industries and stake holders to provide data and information on their performance. It is the primary responsibility of the government to ensure that the information on various aspects of India are adequately provided in a transparent manner to the public. The government alone is in a position to ensure that the data would be adequately collected, disseminated, organized and made available. It is a dangerous situation for any country to have such chaotic statistics scenario, when investments and decisions involving several millions of rupees have to be taken on the basis of the information and data available. As the collection and organization of data is a complex and expert job, government should encourage the consultancy bodies to involve themselves in this field in a big way and provide them the necessary facilities and authority to collect the data from the various organizations
In 2004, just $13bn (Euro 8.8bn) worth of manufactured product output relied on nanotechnology of some kind. In 2006, nanomaterials were valued at $521m, nano-intermediates at $7.9bn and nano enabled final products climbed to $50bn, which still accounted for less than 0.5% of global manufacturing output. The dramatic growth is expected to continue and reach $2.6 trillion in 2014 or 15% of manufacturing output. Regionally, the US and Japan account for about 72% of corporate nanotech funding, but spending on initiatives is growing most rapidly in Asia and other emerging regions. There are four main phases of nanotechnology commercialization. First phase: In the first phase, after 2000, passive nanostructures that contain nanomaterials were introduced. Second phase : The second phase began in 2005, when active nanostructures that change their size, shape, conductivity or other properties during use were brought to market. Third phase : By 2010, a third phase will begin, when systems of nanostructures are likely to be commercialized. Fourth phase : The fourth and last phase will see the commercialization of molecular nanosystems – heterogeneous networks in which molecules and supramolecular structures serve as distinct devices. These systems can be expected some time after 2015. This article further contains the following details
  • Photonic materials
  • Metamaterials
  • Space elevators
  • New Light Stabilizer
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Fuel-saving technologies
  • Solar cell technology
  • Lithium ion batteries
  • Nano porous silicon based material
  • Shock absorbers
  • Electronic applications
  • Pharmaceutical applications
  • Drug delivery agents
  • Diagnostic applications
  • Textile sector
  • Personal care and cosmetic products
  • Plastic sector
The world’s proven uranium reserves are limited and unless breeder technology is embraced in a big way or the higher grade ores reserved for military programmes are freed, the known uranium stocks are likely to last barely 85 years, according to estimates in the Red Book, jointly published by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and International Atomic Energy Agency. It is possible, however, as is happening in the oil and gas sector, that sustained high prices would spur more exploration, mining and supply. The high prices could help raise production by 10% a year. But if the new supply takes years to enter the market, the price of uranium is bound to climb steeply, adding to the cost of nuclear generated electricity, whose commercial attraction has already taken a beating through escalating equipment costs and manufacturing bottlenecks. This article contains the following details :
  • Global uranium demand
  • Price trends
  • Scenario in Australia
  • Availability in Russia
  • Deposits in Kazakhstan
  • Leading importers
  • Scenario in India
  • Germany moots Uranium enrichment plant
Product characteristics and composition Gas condensates are usually produced along with natural gas production. Natural gas condensate is a low density mixture of hydrocarbons (predominantly C2 through C8) separated and/or condensed from natural gas during transportation, wellhead collection and/or from the  production, gathering, transmission and distribution pipelines in drips, scrubbers etc. The elements in gas condensate are ethane, propane, butane and natural benzene (natural gasoline) and others or condensates and the percentage of each depends on quality of natural gas and production conditions Description Properties Synonyms Field condensate, 
Gas well condensate, 
Lease  condensate
Physical state Colored liquid CAS No. 68919-39-1 Odour Pungent odour. Stability Unstable Solubility in water Negligible Viscosity Like that of water Specific gravity (water = 1) 0.5 to 0.6 Boiling point Variable Flash point 78 to 105 deg F Incompatibility Strong oxidizer, strong acids Decomposition will not occur if handled and stored properly. In case of fire, oxides of carbon, hydrocarbons, fumes or vapours and smoke may be produced. Decomposition products *           When mixed with air and exposed to an ignition source, flammable vapor can burn in the open or explode in confined spaces. *           Flowing product may be ignited by self generated static electricity. *           Being heavier than air, vapor may travel long distances to an ignition source and flash back. *           Runoff to sewer may cause fire or explosion hazard
This article further discusses the following details :
  • Derivative products of natural gas condensate
  • Composition of gas condensate
  • Producer’s specification
  • Global producers
  • Separation Of Condensate From Natural Gas
  • Source of natural gas
    • Crude oil wells
    • Dry gas wells
    • Condensate wells
  • Separation process
  • Flow diagram for separation of condensate
  • World gas condensate industry
  • World production of condensate- Historical trend
  • Projected world production trend of gas condensate– Period 2008-2020
  • Regionwise production-Projected regionwise production trend of gas condensate– Period 2008-2020
  • Supply of gas condensate
  • Demand drivers for gas condensate
Molecular sieves are a certain kind of zeolites, which due to their pore size and chemical composition have particularly developed adsorption properties, which means that they are capable of separating or removing one substance from another on a molecular scale. The term ‘molecular sieve’ is derived from the ability to sieve molecules. Hence, molecular sieves differ from other adsorbents, such as silica gel or activated alumina, which have very wide pore distribution. Molecular sieves are useful to efficiently remove low concentrations of polar or polarizable contaminants such as water, methanol, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, carbon disulphide, mercaptans, sulfides,
ammonia, aromatics and mercury to trace concentrations, which are used to separate molecules by size.
They are used in petrochemical production and oil refining, processing of natural gas, industrial gas and air separation, refrigerant drying and other applications. Product characteristics Molecular sieves are produced in various forms such as beads, granules, pellets, powders. Molecular sieves can withstand temperature upto 90 deg C. Classification Molecular sieves are materials containing tiny pores of a precise and uniform size that is used as an adsorbent for gases and liquids having a network of pores, with different diameters (measured in Ångstroms). It is these diameters that classify molecular sieves such as 3Å, 4Å, 5Å, and 10Å (also known as 13X). The molecular sieve type, size and particle shape are customary for each application. For example, 4 to 8-mesh sieve (pellet, bead or granule) is used in gas phase applications, while the 8 to 12-mesh type (pellet, bead or granule) is commonly
used in liquid phase applications.
Composition of molecular sieves Type Composition 3Å molecular sieve 0.6 K2O: 0.40 Na2O : 1 Al2O3: 2.0 SiO2: x H2O 4Å molecular sieve 1 Na2O: 1 Al2O3: 2.0 ± SiO2 : x H2O 5Å molecular sieve 0.80 CaO : 0.20 Na2O : 1 Al2O3: 2.0 ± 0.1 SiO2: x H2O 10Å molecular sieve 1 Na2O: 1 Al2O3 : 2.8 ± 0.2 SiO2 : xH2O This article further discusses the following details
  • Product specification
  • Role of molecular sieves in different sectors
    • Refining Industry
    • Polyolefin Production
    • Cracked Gas Drying
    • Gas Processing Industry
    • Industrial Gas
    • Medical Oxygen Concentrators
  • Reforming units : Chloride removal
  • Alkylation units
  • Isomerization units
  • LPG production
  • Cryogenic separation processes
    • Xylene Separation and N-ISO Paraffins
    • Aromatics
    • Linear paraffins C10-C14 from a desulfurized kerosene cut
    • PSA Ethanol
  • Pharmaceutical industry
    • Pharmaceuticals packaging
    • Oxygen PSA
    • Hydrogen PSA
  • Global installed capacity and production level
  • Global producers
  • Demand drivers
  • Manufacturing process
Carbon fibre is a long, thin strand of material and composed mostly of carbon atoms. Carbon fiber is commonly a continuous fiber (filaments) of 7 to 10 micron meter in diameter with 1.7 to 2.2 g per cubic cm of density. The carbon atoms are bonded together in microscopic crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fibre. The crystal alignment makes the fibre incredibly strong for its size. The carbon fibre composites are formed combining carbon fibres with a resin matrix (examples include epoxy. polyester, themoplastic, vinyl ester, phenolic types etc). The carbon fibre is the primary load carrier and the resin matrix supports the fibres and transfers the load between fibres. Several thousand Carbon fibres are twisted together to form a yarn, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric. The yarn or fabric is combined with epoxy resin and wound or molded into shape to form various composite materials. There are many different grades of carbon fibre available, with differing properties, which can be used for specific applications. The different composites include
  • Carbon fibres reinforced Plastics / Carbon fibres reinforced thermo plastics
  • Composite of Carbon fibre in a carbon matrix
  • Carbon fibre reinforced ceramic
Classification of carbon fibre Carbon fibres are classified into the following two categories:
  • Regular or small tow (RT)
  • Large tow (LT)
Regular Tow and Large Tow are distinguished by number of filaments and the tensile modulus of the fiber. Regular Tow and Large Tow are used in accordance with the requirement of specific characteristic of the product. Type of carbon fibre Carbon fibers are manufactured by treating organic fibers (precursors) with heat and tension, leading to a highly ordered carbon structure. The precursors include rayon-base fibers, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and pitch.
  • PAN based carbon fibre
  • PITCH based carbon fibre
  • Rayon based carbon fibre
This article further discusses the follwing details :
  • Product application
    • Aerospace / Defense
      • Aircraft brakes –
      • Aircraft wings (Rotary wings, Fixed Wings)
      • Rocket nozzles and Missile Heat shields
      • Artificial satellite
      • Pressure vessel
      • Space Telescope
      • Space Launch vehicles-Potable bridges
        • Automobile
        • Sports goods
        • Medical
        • Industrial/Marine
    • Various parts of submarine
    • Wind farms
    • Nuclear systems
    • Energy
    • Pressure vessel
  • Manufacturing process
    • PAN based Carbon fibres
    • Process flow diagram of PAN based Carbon fibre
    • Rayon based Carbon fibre
    • Pitch based Carbon fibre
    • Process flow diagram of Pitch based Carbon fibre
  • Global installed capacity
  • Installed capacity of selected players
  • New projects under planning/implementation
  • Demand drivers
  • Global demand
  • Scenario in China
  • Carbon fiber demand by application sector
  • Indian scenario
  • Prognosis
Jojoba (botanical name – Simmondsia chinensis and belongs to Simmondiaceae family). is a small tree like evergreen shrub with thick leathery bluish green leaves.Usually bushy, jojoba is a long lived, dioecious, drought resistant plant often reaching heights of three meters or more under ideal growing conditions. The shrub reaches a height of 25 to 30m. It is pronounced ho-ho’-bah. The international legislation for the protection of the endangered sperm whale created the need to find a substitute, which led to emergence of Jojoba as potential plant species of the future, yielding a non-edible oil of the fossil hydro carbons. The Jojoba plant is native to the desert region of California, Arizona and Sonaram in Mexico Seed from the Jojoba plant is the only botanical source of commercial quantities of unsaturated straight chain wax esters. The seed contains 45 to 55% oil or liquid wax, with chemical properties similar to those of the body fat obtained from sperm whale. The jojoba oil has no traces of resins, tars or alkaloids and contains a very small amount of saturated wax, tocopherols, steroids and hydrocarbons. IMPORTANT APPLICATION SECTOR Jojoba Oil Jojoba oil is naturally golden liquid wax ester found in the seed of the Jojoba plant. Although similar in appearance to other vegetable oils, the chemical composition of Jojoba oil resembles that of sperm whale oil. Jojoba oil is composed principally of 40 and 42 carbon chain length esters, which are in turn composed of mono unsaturated fatty acids and fatty alcohols of 20 and 22 carbon chain length. Jojoba oil is an unusually pure compound with less than 3% triglyceride content and is therefore highly resistant to oxidation. Properly packaged, the oil can be stored indefinitely without degrading. Jojoba oil imparts unique and beneficial properties when used for a variety of industrial purposes. While the oil has been proven to be an excellent lubricant for mechanical applications, the principal use of Jojoba oil is for its excellent cosmetic properties such as skin softening, skin penetration and emolliency. Jojoba oil contains no trans isomers. Cosmetic ingredients Jojoba oil and its derivatives are used as raw materials and ingredients in the manufacture of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals. Jojoba has important anesthetic and technical qualities for which it is used as basic cosmetic ingredient in the manufacture of lipstick, face cream, skin freshener, shampoo, moisturiser, soap etc. Jojoba body cream offers improved skin conditioning because of its inherent properties It is non greasy; smooth, soft and emmollent. Lubricants Jojoba oil is used in manufacture of high pressure lubricants (brake oil, engine oil, gear oil, grinding oil etc.) In high pressure lubricants, till recently, sperm whale oil was used but now because of its poor availability and high price, it has been replaced by Jojoba oil. In some respects, Jojoba oil does not contain any triglycerides, requires little or no purification and can absorb larger amounts of sulphur. It does not darken so much on sulphurisation as sperm whale oil. Jojoba oil is used as two stroke engine oil, gear oil and cutting oil. It is also as diesel engine crank case oil, hydraulic oil, textile machinery oil, leather oil, quenching oil, cold rolling oil. Waxes Hydrogenated Jojoba oil is used in polishing waxes, carbon paper and other products.
This article also contains the following details :
  • Simmondsin
  • Jojoba Esters
  • Jojoba Wax
  • Other applications
  • Cultivation practices
  • Sex of the plant
  • Soil conditions
  • Temperature condition
  • Life of jojoba plant
  • Plantation
  • Spacing
  • Yield
  • Male flowers and female flowers
  • Seed production
  • Global scenario
  • Legal status of Whales oils
  • Total world market potential for Jojoba oil
  • Worldwide pattern of jojoba seed production by country
  • Indian Industry status
  • Driving factors for demand
  • Market potential for Jojoba body cream
  • Emerging Use Pattern
  • Government Policies
  • Prognosis
  • Deepwater Oil Exploration – Recent Developments in India
  • Fab City Project in Hyderabad
  • Safety and Accident Page
  • Anti Dumping Page
  • Update on Biofuel
  • Developments in Cashew Industry
  • India’s Expertise In Thorium Technology
  • Floating Fertiliser Storage Units
  • China News
  • News Round Up – International & India
  • Technology Development – International & India
  • Agro Chemical Page – International & India
  • Environmental Page
  • Energy Page
  • Tender
  • Ask for the Chemical Facts Free
  • New Projects - International
  • Price Details - International
  • Directory of International Biotechnology Organisations
  • Chemicals Imported at Chennai Port during the month of October 2007
  • Chemicals Imported at Chennai Port during the month of November 2007
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