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                    HIGHLIGHTS OF ARTICLES FROM OCTOBER 2016 ISSUE OF

                                           NANDINI CHEMICAL JOURNAL

HIGHLIGHTS OF SOME OF THE ARTICLES
  • START UP INDIA / MAKE IN INDIA SCHEMES NEED FINE TUNING
  • WHERE IS THE WORLD NOW AFTER PARIS CLIMATE CONFERENCE ?
  • SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL - L-CYSTINE/ L-CYSTEINE
  • TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE – PRODUCT PROFILE
  • PROPOSED TITANIA SLAG PROJECT OF INDIAN RARE EARTHS–WILL IT HAPPEN?
  • 75 YEARS OF CSIR LABS - TIME TO INTROSPECT
  • IMPACT OF NATURAL GAS PRICE INCREASE ON GAS EXPLORERS
  • FROM WASTEWATER
  • TO ECO FRIENDLY FERTILIZER PROJECT IN CANADA
  • ANTI DUMPING PAGE
  • SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PAGE
  • NEWS ROUND UP – INTERNATIONAL
  • TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
  • SANITARY NAPKINS THAT ABSORB BETTER
  • CHLORMEQUAT CHLORIDE- PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR
  • CHINA NEWS
  • CHEMCHINA - PROFILE
  • NEWS ROUND UP – INDIA
  • PHARMA PAGE
  • ENERGY PAGE
  • SOLAR MODULE MANUFACTURE IN INDIA
  • OTHER ARTICLES
  • PRICE DETAILS
TALK OF THE MONTH

START UP INDIA / MAKE IN INDIA SCHEMES NEED FINE TUNING

While the Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched Start up India and Make in India schemes with great fanfare and hopes , it appears that a view is gaining ground in India that the progress of these two schemes are much below the expectations.

While the ministers and officials of Government of India have been frequently making claims that thousands of crores of rupees are being invested in Make in India and Start up India projects, those in the know of things seem to think that the figures are only for conference rooms and seminars and do not reflect the ground reality.

Recently, Maharashtra Government has made claims that Rs. 8 lakh crore schemes have been promised in Maharashtra under the Make in India scheme. Such claims have only raised more suspicions about the credibility of the figures rather than generating enthusiasm amongst the public.

What objective for the schemes ? :

When Mr. Modi launched Start up India / Make in India programmes, the underlying concept, as understood by the people, was that the schemes would lead to strengthen the manufacturing base in the country, encourage talented and competent individual citizens to set up manufacturing projects in the tiny, small and medium scale sector, reduce import dependence for various products and generate massive employment.

The concept, as people were made to believe, was that massive industrial activities would happen, encouraging large number of people even at lower and middle income group to participate in the schemes by setting up projects in tune with their aspirations, talent and priorities. Unfortunately, it looks that nothing of this sort is really happening in the scale that is expected and needed.

Is the scheme becoming a mockery ?

To some extent, the schemes of Mr. Modi appear to have become a mockery, when we hear that even Reliance industries proposing an investment of Rs. 25000 crore by setting up Reliance Jio for telecom services, Vodafone investing Rs. 6000 crore in telecom services and even Indian Bullion and Jewellers Association proposing to strengthen the industry association ,claim that they are involved in Make in India projects. Are the Make in India scheme launched by Mr. Modi targeted towards Mr. Mukesh Ambani and others who are well placed in business activities ?

Apart from the big industrialists joining the Make in India band wagon, many Start up India projects have been announced , a number of which are “easy ventures” set up in the services and trading sector such as vegetable vending, laundry services, trading activity etc.

Of course, these too are credible investments and ventures but do they fulfill the concept of Start up India and Make in India projects, as understood by people when Mr. Modi launched the schemes?

Strengthening the manufacturing base is the need

recent years, India appears to be becoming a dumping ground for various products (even such products as match boxes, zippers, children’s books, toys etc.) with large number of trading houses coming up in the country which focus on importing several products and marketing in India. The neglect of manufacturing activity in the country is too glaring, which cannot be ignored anymore.

Even in the case of medium and large scale projects, a number of units have been closed down in recent times and the owners of such units have started importing the product which they were once making in their units and turning themselves from being a manufacturer to be a trader.

Manufacturing activity is needed and is highly relevant to the nation’s requirement , even if they are in tiny or small scale sector.

When India attained independence , great emphasis was made by Mr. Jawaharlal Nehru to promote massive manufacturing activity in small scale sector and special schemes were created to attract the investors , even those with marginal income level. Thousands of young people jumped into the fray. While some succeeded in impressive manner and some other projects ended up as failure, the over all impact on the entrepreneurship mood of the country was very positive.

Unfortunately, Modi government’s Start up India / Make in India schemes are not able to build up such entrepreneurship mood and investment climate amongst the cross section of the country men, to the extent needed. The schemes are unable to dispel the impression that only the well established industrialists and people with huge money power can enter into industrial projects.

With such perspectives amongst people, massive investments in manufacturing activity in tiny and small scale sector in mass scale are not happening. The innovative research schemes remain largely conspicuous by absence.

Need for fine tuning

The lack of great stress on the manufacturing activity in the Make in India / Start up India projects is glaring.

In promoting the schemes, distinction has to be necessarily made between the services sector including trading activities and manufacturing / research and development activities.

Obviously, this calls for fine tuning based on the experience gained after the launching of the schemes.

A careful analysis of the type of investments promised and made and what percentage of manufacturing / research and development activities are involved in such investments, would clearly highlight the lacuna.

WHERE IS THE WORLD NOW AFTER PARIS CLIMATE CONFERENCE?

There was much excitement and euphoria when the draft agreement was signed in Paris climate conference in December 2015, when the countries agreed to limit global temperature rise to well below 2 degree celsius , while pursuing efforts to keep temperature rise to 1.5 degree celsius.

This was followed by another event on 22nd April, when 175 countries signed the Paris Agreement at a ceremony in New York

The question is as to whether the Paris Agreement coming into force will really make any significant difference, since there are many underlying issues that have not been addressed in the Paris Climate Agreement.

Paris Climate Agreement may be the best deal that could have been struck, given the limits of the political and economic environment, but it does not mean that it has done adequately what is necessary to protect the life support systems of the actual environment.

Alarming trend and need for urgency

There is alarming trend in increase of global warming in recent time.

Between 1880 and 2010, the mean temperature in the world increased by one degree celsius and between 2010 and 2015, it was reported to have increased further by 0.15 degree celsius

It was reported that 2014 was the warmest year across the globe since records began in 1880.

Now, United Nations Weather Agency has said that in the current year , August equaled July as the hottest month in recent times. It further reported that extraordinary temperatures are “said to become the new norm”. The United Nations Meteorological Organisation also forecasted that 2016 will prove to be the hottest year on Earth over 137 years of record keeping

Going by current trends in global warming, the earth would have become warmer in 2018 by 0.1 degree celsius compared to 2015 levels, moving closer to the target of 1.5 degree celsius warming leves.

There is little time to act.

Paris climate agreement fall far short of need

There was skepticism from some quarters even when the draft agreement on climate change was signed in Paris , since many people thought that the conference agreed on the need to aggressively address the climate change issues but failed to detail with clarity as to how it would be done.

Aggregate pledges to reduce greenhouse emissions made by the nation states of the world fell far short of what is needed to begin to address the looming catastrophic climate change.

Paris Agreement failed to acknowledge the need to decarbonize the world economy and made no reference to fossil fuels such as crude oil, coal in the agreement

Technologies and actions have not been prescribed to halt growth of climate destructive industries.

While many countries have signed the agreement , the ground reality is that the interest and responsibilities between the countries diverge widely, ranging from the post industrial economies of the global north to industrializing nations such as China and India to the most vulnerable nations already facing climate change disruptions, such as Kiribati, Tuvalu ad Vanuatu.

Enforcement of the agreement is non adversarial and non punitive , which implies that actions by countries depend on peer pressure.

There are no legal enforcement mechanisms for non compliance. Targets remain voluntary and the required actions are unspecified and appear daunting.

What progress in the recent months ?

Now that several months have gone after the signing of the draft agreement in Paris , one gets an impression that the world is still not moving with the sense of urgency that the challenge of global warming needs. There is no sign of meaningful and purposive dialogue between the nations about the lacuna and gaps in the Paris climate conference and the way to move forward to overcome the limitations of the Paris Climate Agreement.

The ratification of the agreement entering into force 30 days after 55 countries deposit their instrumentations of ratification will not, by itself, make big difference when the basic issues remain unresolved.

Is Paris Agreement facing uncertainty ?

Economic impact of large scale reduction of reliance on fossil fuels is untested and not clear.

This aspect is yet to be discussed and studied in comprehensive manner.

There are political risks also.

Currently, in USA , the Republican candidate for 2016 Presidential election opposes significant policy measures to mitigate climate change and has distanced himself from mainstream scientific views. If Donald Trump were to become the US President, will USA ,which is the largest consumer of energy in the world , honour the Paris Climate Agreement?

United Nations Secretary General has to ask the Presidential candidates in USA to state their views clearly.

What needs to be done now ?

The real work on decisions made during Paris climate conference, has to begin now and in earnest globally by all countries.

Agreements in principle need to be translated into action by individual member countries.

Developed nations need to determine their projected peak emissions level plan with urgency. This requires more specific and aggressive policies in a massive expansion of clean energy investment and industry needs to plan to shift away from fossil fuels

While developing nations are allowed more flexibility, due to rising population and pollution level due to economic growth, there is need to make a careful assessment of total cost of polluting with fossil fuels and the cleanup thereafter and hence decide their fossil fuel based energy profile carefully.

SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL - L-CYSTINE/ L-CYSTEINE

L-Cystine and L-Cysteine are sulphur containing amino acids

L-Cystine

  • CAS No. & chemical formula
  • L-Cystine 56-89-3 C6H12N2O4S2
  • L-Cystine dihydrochloride 30925-07-6 C6H12N2O4S-2HCL
  • Appearance White crystals or crystalline powder; tasteless
  • Solubility Practically insoluble in water

Product specification for L-Cystine

 

Description

Value

Assay

98.0%~101.0%

Loss on drying

≤0.2%

Residue on  ignition

≤0.1%

Chloride [Cl-]

≤0.02%

Heavy metals [Pb]

≤10ppm

Arsenic [As2O3]

≤1ppm

L-Cysteine

  • CAS number & molecular formula
  • L-Cysteine 52-90-4 C3H7NO2S
  • L-Cysteine hydrochoride anhydrous 52-89-1 C3H8ClNO2S
  • L-Cysteine hydrochoride monohydrate 7048-04-6 C3H10ClNO3S
  • Appearance White crystals or crystalline powder; characteristic taste.
  • Solubility Freely soluble in water

Product specification for L-Cysteine

Description

Value

Assay

98.0 - 101.0 %

pH (2.5 %; H2O)

Identity

Heavy metals (as Pb)

max. 0.001 %

Sulphated ash

max. 0.1 %

Loss on drying

max. 0.5 %

*NPS (Ninhydrin positive substances)

max. 0.5 %

Ammonium

max. 0.02 %

Chloride

max. 0.04 %

Sulphate

max. 0.03 %

Fe

max. 0.002 %

 

Following details are discussed in this article

  • Application
  • Indian import
  • Indian export
  • Indian producers
  • Plant closure
  • New projects under advanced planning /implementation,
  • Demand driver
  • Demand growth
  • Indian demand
  • Outline of process and raw material used
  • Global production/demand
  • Application sectorwise demand
  • Regulations
  • Major global producers
  • New project
  • Prognosis
TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE – PRODUCT PROFILE
  • Chemical formula C9H6N2O2
  • Appearance White to pale yellow liquid

Specification

 

Description

Value

Appearance

Clear liquid

Purity (% by wt.), min.

99.7

Isomer Content (% by wt.)

2,4 TDI

2,6 TDI

 

80 +/- 1

20 + /- 1

Total Acidity (ppm. by wt), max.

40

Hydrolyzable Chlorine

(ppm.by wt.), max

70

Total Chlorine (ppm. by wt.) max.

700

APHA colour, max

25

Sp. Gr (at 20 deg C / 20 deg C)

1.22 +/- 0.02

Following details are discussed in this article

  • Application sector
  • Indian import / export
  • Pattern of country wise import
  • Pattern of country wise export
  • TDI production in India
  • Installed capacity
  • Global scenario
  • Selected global producers
  • Scenario in China
  • Producers of TDI in China
  • Regulations in China
PROPOSED TITANIA SLAG PROJECT OF INDIAN RARE EARTHS – WILL IT HAPPEN ?

Indian Rare Earths Ltd proposes to set up titania slag plant by using ilmenite produced at Orissa Sands Complex (OSCOM), Odisha , on build own operate transfer (BOOT) basis.

In the past, Indian Rare Earths Ltd has considered project proposal for titania slag and made some preliminary efforts. However, the project was not implemented.

It remains to be seen whether the proposed titania slag project would see the light of the day now.

Titania slag is the beneficiated ilmenite produced by a process of electrosmelting reduction.

Ilmenite containing around 58% of titanium and 36% of iron would be beneficiated to the level of 88 to 92% titanium content, when pig iron would be produced as co product.

The produced pig iron would be separated from the titania slag.

Following details are discussed in this article

  • Typical specification of titania slag
  • Application
  • Indian Import/ export of titania slag
  • Demand supply scenario for titania slag in India
  • Earlier efforts of Indian Rare Earths Ltd to set up titania slag plant
  • Global scenario
  • Global demand
  • Growth in demand
  • Global manufacturers

Will the titania slag project of Indian Rare Earths Ltd happen ?

75 YEARS OF CSIR LABS - TIME TO INTROSPECT

CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) promoted and funded by Government of India has completed 75 years of service to the nation. Like any other institution of long standing, CSIR is celebrating the occasion.

Now, it is right time for CSIR labs to introspect as to what they have achieved and what they have failed to achieve.

Having pan-India presence, CSIR has a network of 38 national laboratories, 39 outreach centres, 3 Innovation Complexes and 5 units. About 4600 active scientists supported by about 8000 scientific and technical personnel serve in CSIR.

Inaugurating the Platinum Jubilee Celebrations of CSIR,Prime Minister Narendra Modi applauded the efforts of CSIR and stressed on the need for using technology to help farmers double their income by 2022. Prime Minister added that research was needed for maximising farm output from wasteland as well as increasing output from the same acreage under initiatives such as “per drop, more crop”.

Following details are discussed in this article

  • Dehradun declaration
  • Budget allocation
  • CSIR labs not self supporting
  • Have CSIR labs built adequate confidence amongst the industry ?
  • Export programme
  • Need based R&D activities required
  • Converting CSIR labs as educational institution
  • Why not convert CSIR labs into joint sector projects ? 
IMPACT OF NATURAL GAS PRICE INCREASE ON GAS EXPLORERS

The price for natural gas has been reduced by 18.3 per cent to $2.5 per million British thermal unit (mBtu) on gross calorific value basis for the period from October 1, 2016 to March 31, 2017. The new price is against $3.06/mBtu that has prevailed during the preceding six months.

The ceiling for gas from difficult fields too has come down by 19.82 per cent to $5.30/mBtu for the next six months, compared with the upper limit of $6.61/mBtu that prevailed till September 30.

This would be a setback to natural gas producers such as ONGC, Oil India, Reliance Industries, Cairn India and GSPC.

Above subject is further discussed in this article.

FROM WASTEWATER TO ECO FRIENDLY FERTILIZER PROJECT IN CANADA

The largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada, turned a problem of excess phosphorus accumulating in its wastewater treatment system into a slow release, environmentally friendly fertilizer.

The Ostara Pearl® 2000 reactor system operating at the City of Saskatoon Wastewater Treatment Plant transforms excess phosphorus and nitrogen from the wastewater into fertilizer pellets.

In the final steps of the process, a Kason single deck circular vibratory screener dewaters the pellets, and a five-deck Kason classifier separates the final dried pellets into four commercial sizes sold as Crystal Green® fertilizer.

Following details are discussed in this article

  • Features of the process
  • Disadvantages
  • Nutrient recovery process
  • Circular screener dewaters pellets
  • Five-deck classifier separates fertilizer pellets into commercial sizes
  • Crystal Green fertilizer
ANTI DUMPING PAGE

The antidumping measures introduced in the last few weeks on the following products are discussed

  • PTA
  • Para nitro aniline
  • n-Butanol
  • Select ‘glass fibre’
SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PAGE

The articles discuss about the accidents that occurred in the following plants

  • Chemical accidents in China in 2016
  • Explosion at nitrous oxide unit in Florida,USA

 

NEWS ROUND UP – INTERNATIONAL

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed

  • Methanol projects in USA
  • HFO-1234yf plant in USA
  • Polyolefin foams project in USA
  • Cathode active materials (CAMs) in North America
  • Polymer plant in Singapore
  • Fungicide made by Syngenta - Elatus Plus
  • Bio based succinic acid
  • m-xylene unit in Japan
  • Carbon fiber unit in South Carolina,USA
  • Sasol’s ethane cracker project in USA

 

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS - SANITARY NAPKINS THAT ABSORB BETTER

Sanitary napkins which have greater absorption capacity than commercially available ones and can be safely disposed owing to their biodegradable nature may soon become a reality thanks to research work carried out by a team of researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad.

Most commercially available napkins use cellulose fibre to increase their absorption capacity. But the lower surface area of the fibre limits the absorption capacity. In order to enhance the absorption capacity, some brands use superabsorbent polymers (cross-linked sodium polyacrylate gels). When polymerised acrylate is added to cellulose, the resulting product has enormous ability to absorb water, which has caused an increased use of this substance in the production of hygiene products such as sanitary napkins.

Above subject is further discussed in this article

  • Recent developments on the following products are discussed
  • Jet fuel from eucalyptus trees
  • Sugarcane waste yields carbon for use in batteries
  • Aviation fuel from steel mill waste
CHLORMEQUAT CHLORIDE- PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR

In 2009, EU had come up with new regulations on pesticides, raising the chemicals to be monitored from 98 to 167.

The European Food Safety Authority has also prescribed 1.06 ppm as a safe level and the existing European regulations state that the residue levels should be around 0.05 ppm.The detection machines with EU until now have been able to detect pesticides to the level of 0.05 ppm and with advanced technology can now detect up to 0.01 ppm.

In 2010, Indian grape exports had faced a setback, with EU reluctant to accept Indian table grape consignments as chlormequat chloride — a plant growth regulator — was detected in excess of the prescribed maximum residue level (MRL).

Above subject is further discussed in this article.

CHINA NEWS

Chemical industry in China – Figures at a glance

 

Polyethylene

Polypropylene

Polystyrene

Domestic production

56.4%

78%

74%

Imports

43.6

22%

26%

2015 total supply

Million metric tonne

24.67

22.20

2.98

Methanol capacity by feedstock

(2015 name plate capacity - 60.4 million metric tonne)

 

Coal

63.5%

Natural gas

19.6%

Others

16.9%

PTA capacity

 

Year

Name plate capacity

Domestic demand

In thousand metric tonne

2011

18000

24000

2012

23000

25000

2013

33000

27000

2014

35000

29000

2015

35500

30000

Polypropylene production

(2015 total - 22.07 million metric tonne)

 

Steam cracking

41.2%

FCC splitter

29.9%

Propane dehydrogenation

8.8%

Coal to olefins

5.7%

Coal to propylene

4.8%

Others

9.6%

 

Year 2015

In million metric tonne

 

Ethylene capacity

21.2

+8.9%

Soda ash production

25.9

+2.7%

Urea demand

59

+5.2%

 

The recent developments in China are discussed in following articles

  • Methanol to olefins projectAdipic Acid /caprolactam project


CHEMCHINA - PROFILE

 
China National Chemical Corp. (ChemChina) is China’s fastest-growing chemicals firm. ChemChina was created in 2004 through the merger of two of China’s then-biggest state-owned enterprises: China Bluestar and China Haohua. The two companies, which are still key operating units in the ChemChina group, were directly affiliated to China’s former Ministry of Chemical Industry. With 2015 sales of $45 billion, state-owned ChemChina ranks among China’s largest chemical companies.

The company has embarked on a massive expansion and restructuring plan, dubbed 3+1, which will shift the company’s focus to material science, life science, and advanced manufacturing. 

Following details are discussed in this article.

  • Companies that form part of ChemChina. Excludes research institutes
  • ChemChina’s overseas acquisitions
NEWS ROUND UP – INDIA

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed

  • Indian Oil inks MoU with Praj Industries for development of 2G ethanol
  • HFC footprint in India
  • Gas pipeline project in East India
  • LNG terminal at Dhamra port in Odisha
  • Exploratory wells by Cairn India in Andhra Pradesh
  • Indian Satellites –Progress report
PHARMA PAGE

Recent developments in the pharma field is discussed in the following articles

New drug for antibiotic resistanat bacteria

ENERGY PAGE

SOLAR MODULE MANUFACTURE IN INDIA

According to data provided by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, India had cell and module capacities of 1,212 MW and 5,620 MW respectively, as on April 1, 2016, but most of the companies that figure in the Ministry’s list have long ceased to function

Data compiled by the solar consultancy, Bridge to India, shows that in the 3,662 MW of solar power projects commissioned between the third quarter of 2015 and the second quarter of this year, Waaree had a 3.8 percent share, Tata Power Solar 2.5 percent and Vikram 1.1 percent. Most of the Indian manufacturers, including Vikram, Waaree and Tata Power Solar, are working well under full capacity.

Apart from Vikram, Waaree and Tata Power Solar, there are a few companies that have some sales, such as Surana Solar, BHEL and Emmvee.

The Indian market is largely catered to by Chinese companies — notably, Trina, Canadian Solar, Hanwha, JA Solar and Renesola.

Above subject is further discussed in this article.

Recent developments in the energy fields are discussed in the following articles

  • Capacity utilization of thermal power plants
OTHER ARTICLES
  • Price details
  • ONGC starts selling gas at ‘premium’
  • Spot price of polymers in China - Period September, 2016
  • Tenders
  • Chemicals imported at Chennai port during the month og July, 2016