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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal,  July 2015

CELLULOSE ACETATE|VITAMIN A|BIODIESEL
Highlights of Some of the Articles

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA’S WELCOME APPROACH TO SOLAR PROJECTS
POTENTIAL FOR SOLAR PUMPS IN AGRI OPERATIONS
ROOF TOP PROJECTS IN USA – RECENT TREND
UPDATE ON BIODIESEL
GLOBAL BIODIESEL OUTPUT – FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
2-ETHYL HEXANOL - INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL EPOXY FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER (EFAME)
CELLULOSE ACETATE – INCREASING DEMAND IN ASIA
VITAMIN A – INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
GLOBAL CRUDE OIL SCENARIO – RECENT TRENDS
PROJECTED GAS AVAILABILITY IN INDIA - GOVERNMENT’S CLAIM
RAAGESHWARI DEEP GAS BLOCK
WORLD DEMAND FOR SILICONES – FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
INDIAN SOLVENT EXTRACTION INDUSTRY AT THE CROSS ROADS
OTHER FEATURES
OTHER ARTICLES

TALK OF THE MONTH

TALK OF THE MONTH
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA’S WELCOME APPROACH TO SOLAR PROJECTS

It is now well recognised that India is facing impending energy  crisis  due to steadily increasing demand for crude oil and natural gas and with the production of these two vital feedstock remaining stagnant  for all practical purposes.

Until recently, the Government of India was really groping in the dark on the strategies for tackling the impending energy crisis.  Many suggestions and proposals were made such as tapping wind and solar power potential, exploring the feasibility of developing shale gas wells, coal bed methane, jatropha biofuel, algae based biofuel etc. However, most of such suggestions continued to be in discussion stage with the government setting up some targets for solar power by 2020.  However, the progress with regard to the solar power projects have been dismal and it seemed that the government’s efforts were half hearted.

In such circumstances, after Mr. Narendra Modi emerged as the Prime Minister, now  we see a determined and focussed approach to implement the solar power projects with speed  and dynamism. Fall in the price of polycrystalline silicon and solar cells in the global market have considerably helped in bringing down the cost of solar power project in India and making the cost of solar power somewhat affordable to the industries and  domestic  consumers.

The proactive policy of the Modi government in encouraging overseas investments have helped to some extent,  in  accelerating implementation of solar power projects , with the global investors and technology suppliers looking at Indian solar power industry with greater confidence and enthusiasm. The overseas funds have been steadily coming for the solar projects and several international equipment suppliers and technology providers are seeking to set up facilities and offices in India. Such developments are positive signs  and they  give hope that the government’s target of achieving 20,000 MW capacity by 2020  may  be achieved.

What is particularly  significant is the importance given by Government of India to the roof top solar power projects  and the proposal to compel all new building complex to have roof top solar projects.  The government of India has announced a number of incentives and subsidy schemes to particularly encourage  the roof top solar power projects.  While there are still constraints that have to be overcome, the enthusiasm of the people towards roof top solar power projects is distinctive sign of progress.

Another move that is being examined by the government now is to encourage the setting up of solar pumps in agricultural farms , that would significantly  reduce the demand for power from the grid for agriculture operations. Of course, imaginative schemes have to be launched by the government including farmer  education programme and easy loan scheme for the agricultural community to install the solar pumps.

Those installing roof top solar power projects and solar pumps in agricultural farm have the option to sell the surplus power they generate to the grid. The government  should  also remove the  cumbersome producers for installing and utilizing the solar power projects in large residential complex , so that the residents can use the power or sell the power without any control from state electricity board authorities.

India can well become the largest solar power producing country in the world and protect itself from an impending energy crisis , if the central and state governments, investors and individuals will move in tandem in making India the solar power hub in the world.

POTENTIAL FOR SOLAR PUMPS IN AGRI OPERATIONS

Farmers can be provided solar irrigation pumps with  power purchase guarantee, similar to what the large solar power generators get.

A 10 kilowatt solar pump can generate 13,000 units of power per year worth around Rs. 65,000.

If put under solar PV arrays, one hectare of land can generate more income for the farmers from solar power compared to income from field crops alone. This revenue is free of risk from droughts, floods, pests and diseases.  All it needs is land.

Every solar pump replacing a grid-connected pump saves the utility over 12,000 units of grid power at generating stations, saving subsidies and freeing up grid capacity for the non farm sector. In theory, the country can save thousands of crores of rupees crore per year in subsidies by going solar for all 11 million electric pumps.

Currently, there are around nine million diesel powered irrigation pump sets in the country. By converting 50 per cent of them, the country can save around 25 billion litres of diesel. By assessing various State governments’ initiatives, it is seen that  conversion of 100,000 diesel pump sets in the next five years is possible. At present, many states are working on subsidy to popularise solar pumps to wean farmers away from grid power usage.

At present, 10,000 solar pump sets have been installed.

Western states especially Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat, have taken the lead in installing solar pumps.

ROOF TOP PROJECTS IN USA – RECENT TREND

In the US, big retail stores have taken the lead and are covering their roofs with solar panels , thanks to broad vacant  roofs and government incentives. For example, Walmart installed more solar panel capacity due to ready access to large area unused roofs of their stores. Their stores get as much as 30% of their power from solar. The panels on Walmart’s roofs are owned and operated by third party solar companies, from which the company buys energy through power purchase agreements. IKEA, known for its massive warehouse style stores, is also putting its empty roofs to use. It is buying the panels instead of following power purchase agreements to take advantage of federal subsidies, which grant investment credits to those that invest in renewable energy.

UPDATE ON BIODIESEL

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to conventional diesel (obtained from crude petroleum). 
Biodiesel (B100) represents 100% biodiesel

When vegetable oil or animal fat is chemically reacted with an alcohol (methanol) and catalyst (caustic soda or caustic potash or sodium methoxide), biodiesel (chemically known as fatty acid methyl ester) is produced, along with glycerine as by product.  This process is called  trans esterification .

 The feedstock (vegetable oil and fats) include the  following

  • Vegetable oils produced from oil seeds (like rape seeds / canola, soybean, sunflower, palm, jatropha, corn, cotton seed, etc)
  • Used cooking oil and grease (yellow, brown, etc)
  • Animal fat (beef tallow, poultry fat, pork fat, etc)
  • Fatty acids including palm fatty acid distillate
  • Oil obtained from algae

All vegetable oils and animal fats consist primarily of triglyceride molecules (consisting of fatty acids  and glycerine) . 

Following details are discussed in this article

  • Comparative properties of diesel and biodiesel fuels
  • India – Biofuel policy
  • Biodiesel scenario in India
  • India- Supply and demand
  • Selected producers of biodiesel in India
  • Indian initiatives
  • Standards for higher biofuel usage
  • Regulations on sale of biodiesel
  • Prospects
GLOBAL BIODIESEL OUTPUT – FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

World production of biodiesel is forecast to climb to a record level, with output in Brazil rising, as the country increases mandates for incorporation in transportation fuel, Oil World said.

Global biodiesel production may rise by 2 million metric tonnes or about 8 percent, to 29.1 million metric tonnes in 2015.

An estimated 9.5 million to 9.6 million metric tonne of palm oil will be used to make biodiesel. Indonesia’s production of palm oil based biodiesel may increase by 1.2 million metric tonne to  3.8 million metric tonne, Oil World reported.
Soybean oil use for biodiesel production is forecast to rise by 300,000 metric tonne to 7.3 million metric tonne, according to the report. Soybean based biodiesel output in the U.S. is seen at   2.3 million metric tonne, Brazil may produce  2.1 million to 2.2 million metric tonne and Argentina 2.05 million metric tonne.

Following detail is discussed in this article

  • Device to detect biodiesel contamination
2-ETHYL HEXANOL - INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY

Appearance                              Transparent liquid
CAS No.                                   104-76-7
Molecular Formula                    C8H18O
Synonyms                                 1-Hexanol 2'ethyl Octyl alcohol
                                                2-Ethyl hexyl alcohol
                                                Octanol

Odour                                      Characteristic odour
Boiling point                              183 to 186 deg C
Solubility                                   Soluble in about 720 parts water, 
in many organic solvents.

Dissolves about 2.5% its weight of water at 25 deg C
Specification

Description

Value

Purity

99.5% Min

Colour APHA

10 Max

Sp.Gr. (20/20 Deg.C)

0.832 to 0.834

Water

0.10% Max

Acidity (as acetic acid %)

0.015%  Max

Aldehydes

0.10%  Max (as EHA)

Sulphuric Acid Colour  APHA

50%  Max

Following details are discussed in this article

  • Application sector
  • Indian producer of oxo alcohol
  • Indian installed capacity / production  of oxo alcohol
  • Trade Analysis
  • Demand drivers
  • Growth rate in demand
  • Indian demand
  • Global scenario
  • Global plasticizer scenario
  • Regulations
  • Global trade of 2-ethyl hexanol (Import)
  • Global outlook
  • Process outline
  • Process description of Davy process technology
  • Prognosis
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL - EPOXY FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER (EFAME)

General details

CAS No:                       72480-50-3

Appearance:                  Light yellow oily liquid

Application:

EFAME is an eco friendly plasticizer

Epoxy fatty acid methyl ester (EFAME) is a plasticizer that is used to partly replace phthalate plasticizers like DOP..

It is used as plasticizer in the production of PVC products like PVC leather, hoses, sheets films, canvas, etc.

Packaging

200 litre iron drum, 1000 litre IBC drums, 24000 litre flexitank

Producer’s specification

Name of the producer: FuJian ZhiShang Biomass Materials Co. Ltd., China

Description

Value

Appearance

≤ 60

Acid value

≤ 0.6

Density (g / cc)

0.91 – 0.92

Heat Loss

≤ 0.5

Flash point (deg. C)

180 – 185

Freezing point (deg. C)

≤ 8

Epoxy value

≥ 4.0

Iodine value 
(gl2/100 g)

≤ 6.0

Following details are discussed in this article

  • Process for the production of EFAME
  • Feedstock
  • Manufacturers
  • Indian import
  • CIF Price of imported product
VITAMIN A – INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY

CAS Number    68-26-8
Synonym           Retinol
EINECS Number:201-228-5
Chemical Formula

 Vitamin A acetate dry powder  C31H52O3
Vitamin A palmitate oily liquid   C36H60O2

Appearance      Pale yellow crystalline solid
Odour              Faint odour

Solubility           Insoluble in water but dissolves in most
organic   solvents
Toxicity

Acute oral, mouse (LD50)  1510 mg per kg
Acute oral, rat (LD50)        2000 mg per kg

Derivatives

Vitamin A has a few derivatives or chemical variations technically such as the following:

*          Vitamin A1 (retinol)
*          Vitamin A2 (retinol)
*          Vitamin aldehyde (retinal)
*          Vitamin A acid (retinoic acid)
*          Vitamin A acetate (retinyl acetate)
*          Vitamin A palimitate (retinyl palmitate)
*          Vitamin A propionate (retinyl propionate)

Synthetic Vitamin A actetate and Vitamin A palmitate are the derivatives most generally used.

Product

Specification

Vitamin A acetate (dry powder)

0.5 miu per  gram

Vitamin A acetate (oily liquid)

1.0 miu per gram

Vitamin A palmitate (oily liquid)

1.0 to 1.7 miu  per gram

*  miu – million international unit

Following details are discussed in this article

  • Application sector
  • Forms and formulation
  • Import in India of  Vitamin A, Vitamin A acetate , Vitamin A palmitate and Vitamin AD3
  • Indian producer
  • Demand drivers
  • Need  for Vitamin A supplements
  • Indian demand for Vitamin A
  • Global scenario for Vitamin A
  • Manufacturing process
  • Prognosis
GLOBAL CRUDE OIL SCENARIO – RECENT TRENDS

Production trend in 2014
 
The United States has overtaken Saudi Arabia as the world's biggest oil producer in 2014 .

US produced 15.9 per cent more oil in 2014 at 11.6 million barrels of oil per day (bpd) to topple Saudi Arabia's 11.5 million bpd production, according to BP Plc's Statistical Review of World Energy..

Russia with 10.8 million bpd oil production was placed third.

The US surpassed Russia as the world's largest producer of oil and gas, producing 1,250.4 million metric tonne of oil and oil equivalent natural gas in 2014. This compared with Russia's 1,062 million metric tonne of oil equivalent.

  • Consumption trend in 2014
  • Oil production forecast in USA
  • Signs of slow down
RAAGESHWARI DEEP GAS BLOCK

In fiscal year 2015, average gas production from Raageshwari Deep Gas field in the block was  0.4528 mmscmd (million standard cubic metres a day), which Cairn expects to raise to 0.7075 mmscmd by fiscal 2016.

Cairn and ONGC, partners in the Barmer block, have more than doubled their gas production estimates from the Raageshwari fields. According to estimates drawn by the partners, the cumulative gas production till May 2020 will help meet almost 2.5 mmscmd or 90 mmscfd (million standard cubic feet a day) of gas demand — both sales plus internal.

Above subject is further discussed in this article.

WORLD DEMAND FOR SILICONES – FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

World demand for silicones is forecast to rise 5.7% per year to US$19.3 billion in 2019.

The pace of growth in value terms will be in line with that seen over the 2009-2014 period, largely due to an improved outlook for silicone prices.

Demand for silicones in developing regions is expected to post strong gains through 2019, benefiting from economic advancement and increased penetration of silicones in less mature markets.

These and other trends are presented in World Silicones, a new study from The Freedonia Group, Inc., a Cleveland-based industry research firm.

Above subject is further discussed in this article.

INDIAN SOLVENT EXTRACTION INDUSTRY AT THE CROSS ROADS

Solvent extractors in India  are concerned about the shortfall in supply of raw material for processing. Therefore, the capacity utilisation of the units has gone down to 30 to 35%.

The industry has been facing problems, as there have been huge production of soyabean in the international markets such as Argentina, Brazil and the US and therefore, meal prices have gone down heavily.

Lesser realization for oil and soyabean meal in export market have resulted in lower crushing and lesser oil availability in domestic market.

Following details are discussed in this article.

  • Challenge
  • Import duty on oilcakes and rice bran
  • Fall in export
  • Import of vegetable oils
OTHER FEATURES

PLANT CLOSURES

The articles discusses about the closure of following plants

  • NBR facility in UK
  • Germany shuts down oldest  nuclear plant

ANTI DUMPING PAGE

The antidumping measures introduced in  the last few weeks on the following product   is discussed

  • PTA

NEWS ROUND UP – INTERNATIONAL

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed

  • Styrene butadiene rubber (S-SBR)
  • PO-polyols complex in Thailand
  • PE plant in Thailand
  • Rare Earth scenario
  • Proposed off the Gulf ethylene projects

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

Recent developments on the following products are discussed

  • Tannery waste into  activated carbon
  • Ozonolysis of renewable raw materials
  • Alkene monomer technology
  • Beijing Research Center
  • Hydro-fracturing for gas exploration
  • Fuel made from algae
  • Synthetic gas to ethylene glycol technology
  • CLRI lab develops diabetic footwear

CHINA NEWS

The recent developments  in China are discussed in the following articles

  • Microfibre material project
  • Butyrrolactone

NEWS ROUND UP – INDIA

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed

  • Bitumen imports
  • Animal feed industry poised to double – Findings of the study
  • Phenol-acetone project
  • Polyols capacity
  • Plans of ONGC
  • India lags behind in research

AGRO CHEMICAL PAGE

Recent developments in  agro fields are discussed in the following articles

  • Insecticides lindane and DDT
  • Stevia sweetener plant
  • Neem-coated urea

PHARMA PAGE

Recent developments  in the pharma  fields are  discussed in the following  articles

  • Approval for cholesterol drug
  • HIV vaccine

ENERGY PAGE

PERFORMANCE OF CAIRN ENERGY

Cairn India, an offspring of Scottish explorer Cairn Energy, is India’s largest private oil company accounting for 27 per cent of its oil output.

To Cairn shall go the credit of making the biggest find in India in two decades when it discovered oil in Rajasthan in 2004. Interestingly, this particular block — RJ-ON-90/1 — was given up by Shell, the original assignee. Cairn Energy acquired 27.5 percent stake in the block from Shell in 1998 and seeing promise within a year, it consolidated its interest to 50 percent and also became the operator of the block.

As it conducted more tests, Cairn realised the potential in the block and bought equity of Shell fully in 2002.

Two years later, the company was ready to announce to the world the biggest oil find anywhere that year. The Mangala, Bhagyam and Aishwarya (MBA) fields were born.

Following details is discussed in this article.

  • Pipeline challenge
OTHER ARTICLES
  • Price details
  • MIBK
  • Spot price of polymers in China - Period June 2015
  • Tenders
  • Chemicals imported at Chennai port during the month of April, 2015
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