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Journals

Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Jan 2013

Isopyrazam|Acrylic Esters|CellulosePowder|LNG Projects
Highlights of Some of the Articles

TALK OF THE MONTH : TASK BEFORE THE PROMOTIONAL BODIES FOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
PRODUCT PROFILE - ISOPYRAZAM (FUNGICIDE)
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY - ACRYLIC ESTERS
PRODUCT PROFILE - CELLULOSE POWDER
ALGAE BIOFUEL COULD OFFER SOLUTION TO INDIA’S ENERGY CRISIS
EU RESEARCH PROJECT ON ALGAE BASED POLYMERS
COAL MAY OVERTAKE OIL AS WORLD’S TOP ENERGY SOURCE - FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
GLOBAL COAL PRICE TRENDS
PROFILE OF INTERNATIONAL COMPANY - SONGWON, KOREA
LNG PROJECTS IN RUSSIA
BROWSE LNG PROJECT IN AUSTRALIA
OTHER FEATURES
OTHER ARTICLES

TALK OF THE MONTH

TASK BEFORE THE PROMOTIONAL BODIES FOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

There are number of associations relating to chemical industries operating in India such as Indian Chemical Council, Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers, Chennai based Chemical Industries Association. Apart from such associations, there are also associations dedicated to particular sector such as Poly Urethane Association. While all these bodies are doing creditable work, the fact is that lot still remains to be done.

Most of these associations largely confine themselves to represent the grievances of the members with regard to the policies and tax structure of central and state governments. They conduct well publicised annual conventions ,where mostly some ministers or bureaucrats are invited to inaugurate or provide presidential address, though such people may not have any particular knowledge or specialization in the field. Occasionally, these associations also organize special lectures on specific subjects. A few associations also bring out journals and periodicals, where considerable space is allotted to describe the proceedings of the events / meetings conducted by the association

While all such functions are useful, it is necessary to point out that such activities contribute largely to maintain the visibility of the organization but do not significantly contribute to the growth and progress of the chemical industries.

Certainly, there are some critical activities that need much more attention from these bodies.

Data base

Indian chemical industry data base scenario now remains chaotic and reliable information and proven statistics are not adequately available in public domain.

While Ministry of Commerce of Government of India publishes the import and export statistics, many times it is found that such details are incomplete or incorrect. In several cases, figures of several chemicals are clubbed together in the import / export statistics. While major ports bring out port bulletins giving import export statistics in the particular port, there are also some private ports  which do not publish such information.

The information published by the ports such as Mumbai, JNPT and Chennai do not contain the name of the importer or name of the exporter.

While several chemical industries particularly for producing specialty chemicals are now operating in small scale sector, the production details or performance level of such industries are not publicized and therefore the information are not available for scrutiny. In the case of medium and large scale industries, in many cases annual reports do not contain specific details of production and sale and raw material consumption. In the case of many companies, the information is clubbed together in value terms and in such circumstances, reader cannot come to any conclusion about the technical performance of the units.

In such scenario, it is necessary that the associations should examine the feasibility of maintaining the database of the chemical industries, that would go a long way in providing reliable information for the chemical industries to operate and particularly to compete in the global market.

Accreditation of consultants / technology suppliers

Today, it appears  that there is no particular entry barrier to consultants and technology suppliers in India.

There are many individuals,  some of whom are superannuated, who enter consultancy field even without necessary infrastructure facilities  and any system for constantly updating the information and knowledge base. No doubt, experienced persons are in an advantageous position to advise the chemical companies with regard to various issues.

But in the absence of adequate trained staff and facilities, the job would be found half done. This may become costly for the chemical industries which utilize  such services.

The market research in chemical industries have now become complex subject due to environmental issues, substitution possibilities, product obsolescence and regulatory practices, which are all constantly being reviewed and improved all over the world.

Therefore, market research agencies need to have expertise in cross section of the areas such as technology, engineering practices, socio economic trends, geographical factors etc.

Considering the above requirements, it would be appropriate if the associations would create some system for accrediting the consultants and technology suppliers, which would enable the chemical industries to choose appropriate agencies to meet their requirements.

Technology auditing

These days, technologies are undergoing rapid and basic changes leading to new applications even for established products, as well as new products which are constantly being developed. Many claims are made about the newly developed technologies, which often remain untested.

It would do lot of good for chemical industries, if the associations can create some systems and facilities to audit and verify technologies and provide appropriate recommendations to the chemical units.

Obviously, associations have highly responsible role to play and they need to prepare themselves adequately for the purpose.

Chemical industries should support the associations in taking up such challenging tasks.

PRODUCT PROFILE - ISOPYRAZAM (FUNGICIDE)

Isopyrazam has been developed by Syngenta and is a persistent and broad spectrum fungicide for the control of Septoria tritici, rusts and other diseases in cereals and some other crops.

Isopyrazam can control black sigatoka, a leaf spot disease in banana production.

Isopyrazam's "double-binding" technology developed by Syngenta ensures strong adhesion to fungus and to leaf wax, providing long-lasting and durable disease protection.

Chemical name 3-(difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-N-[1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9- 1-methylethyl)- 1,4-methanonaphthalen-5-yl]-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide
Chemical formula CH23F2N30
CAS Number. 881685-58-1
Physical state Off white coloured solid
pH                                             6.1 @ 22 deg.C (1% aqueous solution)
Water solubility in (pure water) 0.55 mg/L @25 deg.C
Density                                    1.332 g/cm3

The following details are discussed in this article

  •       Product details
  •       Formulation and application details     
  •       Mode of action
  •       Application in banana
  •       Approval and Registration
  •       Future plans
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY - ACRYLIC ESTERS

Product characteristics

The esters of acrylic acid are known as acrylates, which are produced by the esterification of acrylic acid with respective alcohol.

The important acrylates include the following

  1. Butyl acrylate
  2. Methyl acrylate
  3. Ethyl acrylate
  4. 2-Ethyl hexyl acrylate

Application

Butyl acrylate

Used to make polymers to impart flexibility, tackiness and water resistance to paints, adhesives, leather, textile and paper coatings.

Methyl acrylate

As methyl acrylate is reactive with other monomers and imparts strength and durability to acrylic copolymers, it is a useful monomer for a variety of applications, including coatings for leather, paper, floor covering and textiles, resins

Methyl acrylate is largely used in the production of acrylic fibre.

Neutral monomers, such as methyl acrylate (the most widely used), methyl methacrylate and vinyl acetate are copolymerised with acrylonitrile to increase solubility of the polymer in various solvents and the diffusion rate of dyes into the fibres.

Ethyl acrylate

Ethyl acrylate is used in the production of homopolymers and co-polymers for use in textiles, adhesives and sealants.

The reactivity of the molecule’s double bond also yields applications as a chemical intermediate.

2-Ethyl Hexyl acrylate

2-Ethyl Hexyl acrylate is used in the production of homopolymers, copolymers for caulks, coatings and pressure-sensitive adhesives, paints, leather finishing, textile and paper coatings.

The low volatility and reactivity of the molecule’s double bond makes it a good choice as a plasticizing co-monomer in many applications.

The following details are discussed in this article

  • Use pattern of acrylic esters
  • Import
  • Indian producer
  • Demand supply scenario
  • Global demand supply scenario
  • Important global producers
  • Scenario in China
  • Process outline
  • Prognosis
PRODUCT PROFILE - CELLULOSE POWDER

Cellulose powder is basically alpha cellulose and is derived from cotton or wood pulp. It is inert, non-abrasive and  soft absorbent.

Appearance White to cream odorless powder
Odour                                       Fibrous, odourless
Synonyms Cellulose pulp (pulverized), Cellulose flock, Powdered cellulose
CAS No 9004-34-6
Formula                          (C6H10O5)n
Solubility in water           Insoluble
Stability Stable under normal conditions

Applications

Welding electrodes

Cellulose powder is used in welding electrode to improve the burning of electrodes

In view of very low ash content in cellulose powder, it provides better incineration. When used in welding electrodes, it provides inert gas atmosphere at the time of welding.

Filter aid

Cellulose powder is good depositing media during filtration of galvanic baths and organic solutions. Due to fine fibrous structure and surface of the cellulose powders, good filtration is obtained.

Rubber mix

When added to the rubber mix, the specific gravity of the product is lowered, which gives leather like consistency without abrasion resistance to sole sheets.

The following details are discussed in this article.

ALGAE BIOFUEL COULD OFFER SOLUTION TO INDIA’S ENERGY CRISIS

India is now going through an unprecedented energy crisis and no one seems to be certain as to how the country would come out of the situation.

Precarious feedstock supply scenario

The present import of crude oil in India is around 180 million tonnes per annum.With the production of crude oil remaining nearly stagnant, it is expected that the import of crude oil will exceed 240 million tonnes per annum in the next five years, if the GDP growth of around 6 to 7 per cent were to be sustained.

The article discusses the details on the subject.

EU RESEARCH PROJECT ON ALGAE BASED POLYMERS

In November 2012, the twenty partners involved in a EU funded research programme called SPLASH (Sustainable Polymers from Algae Sugars and Hydrocarbons) held their kick off meeting in Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Led by Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research, the four year project has the goal to develop a new bio based industrial platform using microalgae as raw material for the sustainable production and recovery of hydrocarbons and (exo) polysaccharides from algae and their further conversion to renewable polymers.

The above title is discussed in this article.

COAL MAY OVERTAKE OIL AS WORLD’S TOP ENERGY SOURCE - FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

Coal is set to surpass oil as the world's top fuel within a decade, driven by growth in emerging market namely China and India, with even Europe finding it hard to cut use despite pollution concerns, according to a report published by International Energy Agency (IEA).

The IEA, is the energy advisory arm of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development of 34 industrialized nations.

Thanks to abundant supplies and insatiable demand for power from emerging markets, coal met nearly half of the rise in global energy demand during the first decade of the 21st century.

The following details are discussed in this article

  • Coal demand in India
  • Coal demand in China
  • Coal demand in USA
  • Environmental issues
GLOBAL COAL PRICE TRENDS

International prices of coal are tipped to rise marginally over the medium term once they bottom out after being on a downtrend for the last two years.

The following details are discussed in this article

  • Price trend of coal
  • International price drivers
  • India’s dependence on coal import
PROFILE OF INTERNATIONAL COMPANY - SONGWON, KOREA

Product range

Polymer stabilizers consisting mainly of antioxidants and Ultraviolet (UV) absorbers, account for about 55% of Songwon’s revenues. Its other products include tin intermediates and polyurethanes.

Plant location

The company produces these chemicals at Maeam, Ulsan in Korea; at Suwon, Korea and Shanghai in China .

 It also has a thioesters jv at Tangshan, China.

LNG PROJECTS IN RUSSIA

Russia currently has just one operating gas liquefaction plant – a  10-million-tonne per year facility that is part of the Sakhalin 2 project.

Gazprom is planning to build another plant with a similar capacity near Vladivostok by 2017 (at a potential cost of RUB 220 billion – around $7 billion).

The Chayandinskoye and the Kovyktinskoye deposits in the Irkutsk Region will supply gas feedstock to the future plant.

The following details are discussed in this article

  • Gazprom’s interest in LNG market
  • Yamal LNG project
  • New terminal to supply LNG to Europe
  • India’s deal for Russian LNG supply
BROWSE LNG PROJECT IN AUSTRALIA

State-owned oil producer PetroChina has agreed to pay $1.6bn for a 10 per cent stake in a major offshore Australian natural gas project, underscoring the growing appetite that is fuelling China’s investment in gas developments around the world.

The above subject is discussed in this article.

OTHER ARTICLES

PLANT CLOSURES

The article discusses the plans for closure of selected units by the following players

*        Kemira to exit seven sites
*        Fertilizer plan scrapped
*        Dow Chemical, DuPont announce job cuts 
*        Petronas to exit vinyls 
*        BP cancels plans for Florida cellulosic ethanol plant
*        China suspends p-xylene project in Zhenhai following protests
*        LSB ammonia unit shut

ANTI DUMPING PAGE

The antidumping measures introduced in  the various countries in the last few weeks on the following products are discussed

*        Polysilicon 
*        Resorcinol
*        Methyl ethyl ketone
*        Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether
*        TDI
*        Electrical insulators 
*        Phthalic anhydride

NEWS ROUND UP - INTERNATIONAL

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed

*        EPDM 
*        Biobased polyols 
*        Dehydrogenation catalysts
*        Cellulosic ethanol 
*        Enzymes
*        LAN plant in Africa
*        Methanol project in USA
*        Metallocene LLDPE facility in Singapore
*        Vopak, Sabic form storage jv in Saudi Arabia
*        Sabic, Shell plan POSM, polyol plants as part of Sadaf jv
*        BASF to expand emulsions  capacity
*        Highly dispersible silica 
*        Genetically enhanced seeds to get carbon credits
*        Middle East  region - natural gas production / consumption data
*        Middle East region’s cracker projects

NEWS ROUND UP – INDIA

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed

*        Gulf Oil to buy Houghton International for $1.05 billion
*        Propylene and derivatives joint venture
*        PTA
*        Innovative use of rubber 
*        Rubberised bitumen
*        Revenue in biotech sector tops $4 billion 
*        Fire reported at Reliance’s old Jamnagar refinery
*        Indian steel  industry to add 24-mtpa capacity
*        Cement industry to add 30 to 40 mtpa in 2013

R & D  CENTRES OF BASF

Globally, at about 70 research and development centers, more than 10 000 BASF researchers in various disciplines are engaged in about 2 800 research projects around the world.

The above title’s subject is discussed in this article.

CHINA NEWS

The recent developments on the following products/events are updated

*        Methionine
*        1,4-polybutadiene rubber
*        Bio-PVA project 
*        Pesticide unit
*        PO-MTBE facility
*        Dispersions plant

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed

*        Bio catalyst to develop car fuels from ice cream and soaps
*        Bicycle from cardboard
*        HEC paint thickener

COMMON SALT FREE TANNING TECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPED BY CLRI

The Central Leather Research Institute (CSIR – CLRI) has developed a common salt free tanning technology adding economic and environmental benefits to leather making.

This technology not only eliminates the usage of salt in the tanning process but also shortens it by avoiding the steps of acidification and basification.

Technology developed by CLRI regarding Common salt free tanning is discussed in this article.

 

AN END TO SALINITY CONCERNS OF TANNING - SALT FREE CHROME TANNING

John Sundar V, Muralidharan* C and Mandal AB,
Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Chennai
*Correspondence: Phone +91 44 24915730
E Mail: cmurali62@yahoo.com

 

Nearly 8 to  10% of salt on the weight of hide or skin is employed for the pickling operation. The salt let-out from the waste streams of pickling results in generation of Chlorides and Total dissolved solids (TDS) in the order of 80,000 to 100,000 ppm.

Conventional chrome tanning also generates substantial TDS due to lowering and raising of pH during tanning.

The tanneries in South India employ membrane separation like Reverse Osmosis in effluent treatment systems for removal of salt to meet stringent discharge norms. However, because of high salinity in the effluents, the viability of the treatment system is not ensured. Inadequacy and frequent failures often result in inability to meet discharge norms. The cost associated with the treatment and the disposal of huge quantities of reject arising from the RO plants are also cause of concern for the tanners. 

CLRI team has now developed a salt free tanning technology which solve the problems associated with salinity in tanning. The technology completely eliminates pickling and basification steps through simple process modification.

Technology developed by CLRI scientists regarding “An end to salinity concerns of tanning - salt free chrome tanning” is discussed in this article.

ECOSEL®MTA SALT
FOR CAUSTIC  CHLORINE PLANTS AND DEICING PLANTS

Salt tends to cake when transported or stored without special additives.

Up until now, this is usually prevented by adding ferrocyanide ,an anti-caking agent for salt which was developed by AkzoNobel in the 1950s. The additive prevents lumps forming and makes it instantly ready for use in industry. 

However, ferrocyanide is not removed during brine purification in the caustic chorine plant . It decomposes into ‘free’ iron and cyanide when it enters the electrolysis cell, the latter partially transforms into highly-explosive nitrogen trichloride that needs to be destroyed. The membranes and electrodes can also suffer from iron deposits which affect the cells’ performance – resulting in rising electricity costs as they use more energy to work effectively

AkzoNobel  has developed Ecosel® mTA salt, which is an industrial salt with an eco-efficient anti-caking agent that can save up to 5% of a chlorine production plant’s total energy consumption.

It’s a liquid agent sprayed onto salt before transport to the customer.

Following subjects are discussed in this article
*        Advantages of ®mTA salt in caustic chlorine units
*        Ecosel®mTA anti-caking agent for de-icing salt
*        Supply agreement in China

AGRO CHEMICAL PAGE

The recent developments on the following products/events are updated

*        Gas pipelines for fertilizer units
*        Substitutes for guar in shale gas operations
*        Biologics as the way to cut pesticide residue

PHARMA PAGE

STATUS OF STEM CELL RESEARCH IN INDIA
 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

A business intelligence report on the over $500 million stem cell research industry by GBI Research finds that India is positioned ahead of China and Japan in the Asia Pacific region in institutional research, that promises successful outcomes on research trials. 

Stem cell therapy institutions and academia treat rare blood related disorders like leukemia through bone marrow transplants in addition to repairing and regenerating damaged tissue in the body.

The above subject is discussed in this article.

P53 – RESEARCH EFFORTS ON ANTI CANCER DRUG

For the first time ever, three pharmaceutical companies are poised to test whether new drugs can work against a wide range of cancers independently of where they originated— breast, prostate, liver, lung.

Merck, Roche and Sanofi are racing to develop their own versions of a anti cancer drug, which  they hope will restore a mechanism that normally makes badly damaged cells self-destruct and could potentially be used against half of all cancers.
The above subject is discussed in this article.

ENERGY PAGE

NATIONAL SOLAR MISSION PHASE-II

Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO), funding for solar projects and active participation by States are key issues that need to be addressed in Phase II of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM).

The National Solar Mission envisages installation of around 10,000 MW utility scale and 1,000 MW off-grid solar power projects by the end of the second phase.

The 12th Plan also targets capacity addition of 10,000 MW of grid connected solar power in India. Of this, 4,000 MW would be developed under the Central scheme and 6,000 MW under various State-specific schemes.

According to the RPO norm, every electricity distribution utility, captive or open access, must buy a part of their electricity needs from renewable sources.

The above subject is discussed in this article.

OTHER ARTICLES
  • Price details
  • Middle East Countries ethane prices
  • Butanol
  • Iron ore
  • Ex factory prices of chemicals in China - during the month of October 2012
  • Tenders
  • Chemicals imported at the Chennai port -During the month of October 2012
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