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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, January 2012

KG BASIN|KOODANKULAM PLANT|AMMONIUM CHLORIDE|TRIACETIN
Highlights of Some of the Articles

TALK OF THE MONTH : GAS FIELDS IN KG BASIN DISAPPOINT
GSPC TO INCUR INCREASE IN KG OFF SHORE DEVELOPMENT COST
GLOBAL NUCLEAR POWER EQUIPMENT MARKET INDIA’S OPPORTUNITY
NEED TO COMMISSION KOODANKULAM PLANT
HOW MUCH LOSS DUE TO DELAY IN KOODANKULAM ATOMIC POWER PROJECT?
ENVIRONMENTAL & ENERGY ISSUES IN GERMAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE INDIAN PROJECTS UNDER PLANNING
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE - INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL - GLYCERYL TRIACETATE (TRIACETIN)
GLOBAL LONG TERM RESEARCH INITIATIVES
ILMENITE PROCESSING PLANT IN SAUDI ARABIA
SHELL’S PLAN FOR ARCTIC DRILLING
SUBSTITUTES FOR GUAR GUM
FOCUS ON ONSITE FACILITIES
COGEN PROJECTS IN SUGAR MILLS IN MAHARASHTRA - HEALTHY GROWTH SCENARIO
OTHER FEATURES
OTHER ARTICLES

TALK OF THE MONTH

TALK OF THE MONTH : GAS FIELDS IN KG BASIN DISAPPOINT

Increased dependence on imported gas

With output from Reliance Industries operated KG-D6 gas fields plunging, the country's dependence on imported gas has increased.With domestic demand far exceeding the indigenous supply and very few new local sources available, additional demand will have to be catered through imported gas.

An indication of increased dependence on imported gas is the substantial rise in liquefied natural gas (LNG) sourcing by companies such as GAIL (India), Reliance Industries and GSPC.

To meet the demand, GAIL could end up importing on average 12 to 16 cargoes of spot/mid-term LNG in 2011-12, up from about 3 cargoes a year earlier. Each LNG cargo is about 80 million standard cubic metre (mmscm).

Apart from its long-term contract, Petronet LNG is expected to get about 28 to 29 cargoes and GSPC about 13.

Cut in gas supply to power plants

Dwindling output from D6 is now affecting the power sector, which is facing a pro-rata supply cut due to about 21% reduction in D6 gas supply.

Within  less than a month of stopping supply of gas from the D6 block to city gas distribution firms, the government ordered cuts in supply to power plants

Against the signed gas sale purchase agreement for 29 mmscmd, power firms are getting about 22 to 23 mmscmd gas.

Power projects are forced to buy costlier imported fuel to run their plants.

Fertiliser sector consumers would be the last to face supply cuts.

Cut in gap supply to non core sectors

The oil ministry had stopped supply of D6 gas to non-core consumers such as steel, refineries, petrochemicals and captive power plants since March 30, 2011 to meet demand of core sectors, fertilizer, LPG, power in the order of priority.

Increasing price of gas

The government has fixed D6 gas at $4.20 per unit for five years ending     April 1, 2014, whileLNG in spot markets cost $16 to 18 per unit.

But the imported natural gas is available at $8.5 per mBtu and $14 per mBtu (excluding other levies and taxes)

As a fallout of the cut in gas supply, city gas distributors are planning to raise price of gas supplied to kitchens and automobiles, as they will have to substitute the supply with imported liquefied natural gas (LNG), which costs nearly four times the local gas.

Disappointing efforts

Following the directions of the Management Committee – which oversees the operations of the block – Reliance had drilled four more wells. One was drilled in the main channel, which ended up tapping the same gas which was already under production. The wells drilled outside the channel did not have sufficient gas to make it commercially viable.

On the basis of the field performance in two years of production, Reliance Industries concluded that drilling additional wells would not enhance output. For that reason, Reliance Industries had resisted drilling additional wells. The four wells drilled only further corroborated this understanding so that indiscriminate drilling is not done.

Any scope for immediate increase in supply?

To fix the geological problems affecting output, Reliance Industries has roped in global energy company BP as 30% partner for its 23 oil and gas blocks.  BP has said that production from the field may rise from the year 2014.

The Reliance Industries-BP team is convinced that the way forward to increase output is to draw lessons from existing producing fields and to integrate them with the next wave of development (from discoveries already made).

The operator (Reliance Industries) along with its partners in the block – BP and Niko Resources – has submitted to the Directorate-General of Hydrocarbons proposal to do necessary studies to increase output.

Initial estimates show that the satellite fields can produce 30 mmscmd or more of gas. Together, with the producing fields the output from the block will be about 65 mmscmd.

There are seasonal windows in which exploration and development works can be done in deepwater. November-March is one such period. Every delay would mean pushing back the production period.

Besides, development of the area to bring it to production would also mean mobilisation of resources – drilling vessel, geo technical and seismic vessel – which can take anywhere between 10 days to a month depending on the location. Each vessel costs upwards of $10 million.

The stand of Reliance

Reliance Industries has maintained that it has followed global petroleum industry practices in its operations and has been aggressive but methodical in its exploration activities. The company has also assured that it remains committed to complying with the contract provisions.

Oil Ministry to cap RIL's spend on developing new KG-D6 gas fields

The Oil Ministry of Government of India plans to impose cost limits on the development of new KG Basin gas fields by Reliance Industries and has deferred its decision on the critical issue of allowing the company to fully recover previous costs.

Capex of D1 and D3 was raised from $2.4 billion to $8.8 billion in two years following doubling of output estimates to 80 mmscmd. The jump in the capex attracted severe criticisms from several parliamentarians and finally the oil ministry invited the CAG scrutiny. 

The project approval was also delayed because the oil ministry and its technical arm, the DGH, were unwilling to include around $30 million pre-development cost in the field development plan.

Finally, DGH has agreed to include pre development activities in the plan citing precedence in GSPC's neighbouring KG-OSN-2001/3 block, which the government approved in November 2009.

Expenditure incurred on the basis of approved field development plan is cost recoverable as per the New Exploration Licensing Policy. In other words, the operator first recovers the approved costs by selling oil and gas produced from the block before sharing profit with the government.

The Oil Ministry is keen to call a meeting of the Management Committee of the D6 block to consider Reliance's long-pending plan to develop satellite discoveries in the block and reverse the fall in D6 output, but it will approve the plan on the condition that costs should not exceed original estimates by 10 to 15%. Reliance Industries had estimated expenditure of about $1.5 billion in developing the smaller discoveries in the block on the basis of 2006 prices.

Will Reliance be penalized?

Reliance's bigger worry is the oil ministry's move to penalise the firm for the fall in gas output, which has dropped below 40 mmscmd from over 60 mmscmd.

The company has initiated arbitration proceedings following reports that the government would not allow Reliance to recover all the costs in D6 from gas sales because the output was lower than expected.

Reliance is embroiled in several issues with the government. It has been waiting for more than a year for approval to develop new discoveries, and has not been able to secure approval for pricing its Coal Bed Methane at market determined rates.

GSPC TO INCUR INCREASE IN KG OFF SHORE DEVELOPMENT COST

First gas from KG-OSN-2001/3 field has been rechristened as “Deen-Dayal,” and is expected in 2013 by Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation (GSPC). The field development plan  was approved by the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons in November 2009. 

Peak output from the find is estimated to reach 5.7 to 8.6 million metric standard cubic metre a day (mmscmd).

Though located in shallow water, development of the gas find is considered “challenging” due to twin hurdles of temperature and pressure.

GSPC has already drilled the “top-hole” section of the four production wells, out of the proposed 15, by using a jack-up rig Deep Sea Driller – I, costing $ 100,000 a day. To drill the final section of the reservoir wall by using a cheaper ($62,000 a day) platform-rig, GSPC has roped in Blade Energy to adopt managed pressure drilling (MPD) technology, which was not part of the original FDP.

GSPC uses mud as  lubricant to drill wells. Considering the difficult nature of the reservoir, there is a possibility that  GSPC will end up using more mud to combat pressure, leading to major failure. MDP is expected to ensure the permeability of the reservoir wall to make the drilling successful.

While the new technology will be put to use in 2012, sources say that the other technical alternatives available before the company (like under balance drilling)  are likely to be substantially costly.

GSPC may witness a “marginal” increase in its KG offshore development cost from the initially estimated $1.7 billion (approximately Rs 8,800 crore at the current exchange value) due to it’s decision to use modified drilling technology to manage the high pressure and temperature of the reservoir.

GLOBAL NUCLEAR POWER EQUIPMENT MARKET - INDIA’S OPPORTUNITY

In September 2011, facilitated by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP), leading civilian nuclear power plant vendors announced a common set of principles for the export of nuclear power equipment.

These principles were adopted to reflect the global best practices in safety, security, environmental protection, spent fuel management, compensation in the unlikely event of nuclear-related damage, non-proliferation and ethics.

The outcome preceded three years of consultation and negotiations that started in 2008. The Fukushima experience has been incorporated in the final set of ‘Principles of Conduct’.

This article discusses the subject in detailed manner.

NEED TO COMMISSION KOODANKULAM PLANT

CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION
APPEALS TO GOVT. OF TAMIL NADU

It is gratifying that the Prime Minister has said that the Koodankulam Nuclear Plant would be commissioned shortly.

Chemical Industries Association, an apex body representing the cross section of chemical industries in Tamil Nadu,  hopes that Government of India would stick to this schedule and commission the plant that would relieve the power  crisis in Tamil Nadu to a considerable extent.  Already thousands of small and medium scale industrial and commercial units in Tamil Nadu are on the verge of closure and several thousands of workers and their families are threatened of bad days ahead due to severe power shortage in the state.

Unfounded safety fears

The safety issues relating to Koodankulam Nuclear plant raised by some people are totally unwarranted.  The problem is that the attempts to educate the protestors by the nuclear scientists are not bearing fruit, partly due to lack of understanding of science and technology aspects by the protestors and their pre conceived and unfounded fears. It is difficult to convince people on any issue if there would be unwillingness to listen  to learned scientists and accept their credibility. Indian nuclear scientists are acknowledged around the world for their skill and knowledge and those who are opposed to Koodankulam project should accept this fact.

Thoroughly wrong propaganda such as infertility, loss of fisheries etc. are being advanced which are absolutely not true. It is also totally wrong to say that many countries have given up nuclear projects.  On the other hand, several nuclear projects are under implementation in the world and all these have been repeatedly pointed out.

World Energy  Outlook report

A few weeks back, International Energy Agency, (I E A ) which is highly acclaimed body in the world,  released its  2011 “World Energy Outlook” report which shows pragmatic ideas in tune with the ground realities.

In short, the IEA report has advised the governments to encourage renewables and nuclear power.

The highlights of the IEA report is given below.

The IEA report said that no single renewable energy resource, from wind power to solar energy through biofuels, has remotely become competitive with kilowatt hours of electrical energy generated by coal or oil-fired power plants.

The IEA report essentially noted that should present trends continue, the world’s governments through a lack of progressive initiative in embracing alternative energy sources would continue to rely on ‘tried and true” fossil fuels, resulting in increased pollution, more fossil-fuel dependency and increasingly upward energy prices.

It further said that governments should reconsider their reluctance to embrace nuclear power, as it does not generate greenhouse gases. The IEA report advocates that as a  solution to the present energy crisis in the world,  governments ought to reconsider nuclear power, as it produces zero Carbon dioxide emissions.

Set back to industrial and economic activities

As an association representing the cross section of chemical and allied industries, Chemical Industries Association is highly concerned about the plight of several medium and small scale chemical  and other  industries in Tamil Nadu , who are being forced to curtail operations due to the severe present power shortage in the state.  Whereas the large projects have mostly captive power facilities , the small and medium units almost totally depend upon the grid supply which is grossly inadequate at present. 

Without immediate commissioning of the Koodankulam nucear plant, which is now ready for commissioning, it is not possible to reduce the sufferings of industries in Tamil Nadu.

Financial  benefits to T N E B  :

By immediate commissioning of the Koodankulam nuclear power plant, apart from  additional power availability, the TNEB would reduce its overall losses to some extent, as nuclear power will be available at the price of around Rs.3/- per unit and  TNEB   sells the power at the higher cost to the consumers. 

Further, TNEB is now buying power  from other states at very high cost spending several crores of rupees and such expenses can be substantially reduced, if the Koodankulam Nuclear power plant would be commissioned  immediately.

Appeal to Tamil Nadu government

Chemical Industries Association appeals to the Tamil Nadu government to take a positive  stand on the issue considering the several benefits that the Koodankulam nuclear power plant will bring to the state and the fact that senior and knowledgeable nuclear scientists who  are Indians  and whose  interest in the welfare of the people around Koodankulam is no less than anyone else , have repeatedly assured about the safety aspects of the plant.

HOW MUCH LOSS DUE TO DELAY IN KOODANKULAM ATOMIC POWER PROJECT?

Dr.D M. Mohunta
E-mail: dmm@ccdcindia.com

The   Koodankulam Nuclear Plant site-in-charge Mr Balaji has said that it will take approx 5  to 6 months to start producing power once the go ahead is given.

He said that the power production would be 24 million units per day,  which would value at approx Rs 5 crores per day. That is a price of Rs2.08 per unit.

Back of the envelope calculation will show that for  Tamil Nadu Electricity Board,  which presently sells power to industry at  an average of Rs 5 per unit,  the net revenue foregone by TNEB is Rs.7 crores per day  due to non commissioning of the Koodankulam project.  It would be  Rs 1000 crores in 5 months time.

If the industry has to make up this volume of power by using diesel gensets,  the cost of power would be approx. Rs 14 per unit. The net burden on the industry for this period of five months will be about Rs3200 crores, a penalty on the industry for no fault of its own. The figure of diesel consumption for 5 months would be 6800 kilo litre per day, which is a national waste.

It is strange that the Tamil Nadu Government is silent although industry suffers.

ENVIRONMENTAL & ENERGY ISSUES IN GERMAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

The chemical industry in Germany is reminding the German government of the threat posed by high energy costs.

The amount of taxation being levied on energy is becoming untenable, says the industry. It says that Chemical Industry in Germany must not be allowed to become a casualty of the energy-turnaround policy of the German government.

The chemical industry in Germany faces a number of tough regulatory challenges in the coming years.

German chemical industry is of the view that energy taxes and electricity prices are today clearly higher in Germany than in other countries and such comparatively high price levels negatively impact  it’s chemical industry

This article further discusses the following details :

  • Emission trading fees
  • National compensation schemes
  • Phase out of nuclear power
  • Need for investment in electricity grid
  • Energy tax gap
  • Stress on innovation
CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE - INDIAN PROJECTS UNDER PLANNING

Product details

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is made from polyvinyl chloride and chlorine gas. It is white or yellowish fluid powder.

CPVC has characteristics of heat resistance, chemical corrosion resistance, aging resistance and fire resistance property. 

Specifications


Item

Unit

 

 

 

 

Chlorine content

%

66-68

62-66

62-66

60-64

Volatile content

%,≤

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

Thermal decomposition temperature

Deg..C ,≥

115

115

105

110

Heat stability time(165 deg. C)

S,≥

90

90

60

60

Screenings(0.595mm)

%,≤

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

Oil-absorb ratio

%,≥

25

25

30

30

Absolute viscosity

CP

1.3-1.6

1.3-1.5

1.3-1.5

1.3-1.5

This article discusses the following details :

  • Comparative properties  of CPVC and PVC
    • Heat resistance
    • Mechanical properties
    • Fire properties
  • Applications
  • Production process
  • Global scenario
  • Indian scenario
    • Project proposal of Meghamani Organics
    • Project proposal of DCW
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE - INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
Appearance

White, granular powder

Chemical formula NH4Cl
Density 1.520
Solubility                                            Soluble in water. Soluble in methanol, ethanol. Almost insoluble in acetone, ether, ethyl acetate

Grade

  •       Fertilizer grade
  •       Technical / battery grade
  •       Pharma grade

Storage

Ammonium chloride should be stored in cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from alkaline material.

Product Specifications

Description

Value

 

Technical

Technical white

Pure

Extra Pure

Assay % by wt. on dry basis

95% min.

98% min.

99% min.

99.5% min.

Moisture % by wt. max.

4% max.

1% max.

1% max.

0.5% max.

Iron in ppm max.

100

50

20

10

Sulphates as SO4

0.1% max.

0.1% max.

0.015% max.

0.015% max

Total Sulphated residue on sublimation

-

0.3% max

0.3% max

0.1% max

Phosphates as PO4

-

-

 

0.002%

Ph

-

4.5-5.2

4.5-5.2

4.5-5.2

Matter insoluble in water

0.2% max.

0.1% max.

0.05% max.

0.05% max.

Heavy Metals as Pb

-

-

20 ppm max.

5 ppm max.

Arsenic

-

--

1 ppm max.

1 ppm max.

This article discusses the following details

  • Product application
  • Use of ammonium chloride in fertilizer sector
    • Indian Import
    • Pattern of country wise import
    • Indian Export
    • Pattern of countrywise export
  • Supply scenario
    • Installed capacity / production
    • Indian manufacturers
  • Demand drivers
  • Status of consuming industries
  • Assessment of demand for ammonium chloride - Period April 2011 to March 2012
  • Pattern of demand
  • Demand supply scenario
  • Prognosis
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL - GLYCERYL TRIACETATE (TRIACETIN)
Appearance           Coluorless Liquid
Synonym 1,2,3-Triacetoxypropane, 1,2,3-Triacetylglycerol, Glycerol triacetate, Triacetin
CAS Number 102-76-1
Molecular Formula (CH3COOCH2)2CHOCOCH3
Stability Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.  Combustible.

Solubility

Triacetin is readily soluble in aromatic hydrocarbons and most organic solvents. It is insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, and vegetable and animal oils. It has low solubility in water.

SPECIFICATIONS

Grade: Food Grade


Property

Value

Appearance

Clear liquid

Colour

Colourless

Odour

Slightly fatty

Assay

≥99.5 %

Water Content

≤0.2%

Sulphated Ash

≤0.02%

Arsenic

≤3 mg / kg

Lead

≤5 mg / kg

Refractive Index (at 25oC)

1,429 – 1,431

Specific Gravity (at 25oC)

1,154 – 1,158

Boiling Range

258 – 270oC

  • Application
    • Salient features
    • Application Sector
  • Regulations
  • Process
  • Global production
    • Global producers
    • China scenario
  • Demand growth
  • Global demand
    • Global demand for triacetin in various areas
  • Indian Imports and Sample of individual imports
GLOBAL LONG TERM RESEARCH INITIATIVES

The 13th Annual  Workshop on Long Term Research Initiative (LTRI) took place recently in Brussels.

During the workshop, the LTRI  Innovative Science Award  was presented in conjunction with the Federation  of  European Toxicologists and European Societies of Toxicology (EUROTOX), the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)and the International Society of Exposure Sciences (ISES).

This article discusses the subject in detailed manner.

ILMENITE PROCESSING PLANT IN SAUDI ARABIA

Cristal Global is the second-largest TiO2 producer in the world after DuPont.Cristal Global became the second-largest player in 2007 when it acquired Millennium Inorganic Chemicals. Cristal’s global revenues exceed $2.2 billion last year.

Cristal Global (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia), is investing in an ilmenite-processing plant at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, close to its TiO2 manufacturing complex. This will be the company’s first ilmenite processing and enrichment plant.

This article discusses the subject in detailed manner.

SHELL’S PLAN FOR ARCTIC DRILLING

Royal Dutch Shell, the oil and gas group, has secured a crucial approval from the US government for its long-delayed plan to drill in the Arctic waters off Alaska, which has been fiercely opposed by environmental campaigners.

The move is the latest sign of the US government’s attempt to encourage more offshore oil and gas production, which was severely disrupted after the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster last year.

This article discusses the subject in detailed manner.

SUBSTITUTES FOR GUAR GUM

Guar gum is used as a thickener, emulsifier and stabilizer in textile printing, oil and gas well drilling and fracturing, water based paints, building and construction, cosmetics and personal care, food and feed ingredients

This article discusses the following details :

  • Price trend
  • Price drivers
  • Product substitution
  • Paper industry
  • Oil drilling sector
  • Food industry
FOCUS ON ONSITE FACILITIES

This article focuses the following facilities in detailed manner:`

  • ONSITE FLOURINE FACILITES
    • On site Fluorine plant of Linde
  • ONSITE CAUSTIC CHLORINE FACILITIES
    • Electrolytic Technologies Corp
    • M-series generator
    • K-series generators
    • Difference between M-series and K series
    • EKA Engineering
    • Skid mounted Chlor alkali unit
COGEN PROJECTS IN SUGAR MILLS IN MAHARASHTRA - HEALTHY GROWTH SCENARIO

The Maharashtra government has set up a total target of 1000 MW for co generation from sugar mills in the state of which the government has granted permission for projects worth 982.4 MW capacity till date.

At least 37 sugar factories have begun work on projects to generate around 542.2 MW and another 300 MW are expected to be added through 18 odd projects by December 2012. By December 2012, the state grid is expected to receive a total of  850 MW power from cogeneration plants at sugar factories.

This article discusses the subject in detailed manner.

OTHER FEATURES

NEWS ROUND UP - INTERNATIONAL

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

International

  • Bayer announces €11-billion annual sales target in Asia by 2015
  • 2,4-D Choline
  • Dow Mitsui Ethanol joint venture in Brazil
  • Soda ash and calcium chloride complex at Jubail
  • PTT Global Chemical and Perstorp form isocyanates JV
  • VSF project in Turkey

India

  • Crude oil production
  • Assam Cracker’s costs escalate; completion is delayed
  • Highest anti dumping cases against China
  • Proposal for  bio jet fuel unit

CHINA NEWS

The recent developments on the following products/events are updated :

  • Oxo Alcohols
  • Polysilicon capacity
  • Shale gas scenario in China
  • Dicumyl peroxide / organic peroxide
  • Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride plant
  • Air Separation Unit

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS

The recent developments on the following technology efforts are highlighted

  • Lithium from geothermal brines
  • Coir board launches radiation-proof coir-mix umbrella
  • DRDO creates device to measure radiation
  • Bio battery that runs on waste paper
  • Battery Technology
  • Researchers create a living neon sign
  • A cream to regenerate skin

AGRO CHEMICAL PAGE

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Indo Israeli co operation to raise vegetable yield
  • Soybean rust resistance

PHARMA PAGE

The recent developments on the following products/events are highlighted:

  • Sativex – A Cannabis Based Medicine
  • Indigenous insulin pump
  • Vaccine from Bharat Biotech  facing problems
  • Synthetic marijuana
  • Pasteur Institute to make combo vaccine

ENERGY PAGE

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Indian Solar Module Scenario Facing Import Dumping
    • Indian solar module manufacturers
    • Import dumping
    • Import of thin film modules
    • Irrational custom duty
  • Shan Solar Shelve It’s Polysilicon Cell Project
  • GAIL, Mahindra, Welspun to develop Solar Pv projects
  • BP to exit solar business after 40 years
  • Grid connection for solar power
  • China cautions it’s solar companies on India’s anti dumping probe

SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PAGE

Following safety and accident details are discussed:

  • Four die, 20 hurt as boiler explodes in dyeing unit
  • 50 feared dead as Russian oil rig sinks
  • Fire at Tosoh VCM Plant

ENVIRONMENTAL PAGE

The recent developments on Euro-III fuel to be phased out in seven cities from March 31,2012 are discussed:

OTHER ARTICLES
  • Oil Rich Saudi Arabia wants nuclear power projects
  • Fast track power projects facing gas supply cut
  • Global production of LNG
  • Price Details-Rare Earths
  • Import / Export Price In China
  • Tender
  • Chemicals imported at the Chennai port during the month of October 2011
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