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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, May 2011

ENDOSULFAN IN INDIA|SHALE GAS IN INDIA|BISPHENOL A|SCRAP TYRE
Highlights of Some of the Articles

TALK OF THE MONTH : WHY ARE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN CHINA FORGING AHEAD AND NOT IN INDIA?
AGITATION AGAINST ENDOSULFAN IN INDIA
NEW INVESTIGATIVE PUBLICATION ON “GLOBAL OIL PRICE FLUCTUATION – WHY AND HOW?”
SODIUM TRI POLY PHOSPHATE - INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
BISPHENOL A – PRODUCT PROFILE
ALL INDIA ESSAY COMPETITION FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS ON INDIA’S ENERGY NEEDS & OPTIONS BY 2020
SCRAP TYRE UTILIZATION - INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
MUTUAL ACCEPTANCE OF DATA SYSTEM (MAD)FOR CHEMICALS & CHEMICAL PRODUCTS
SAFETY PROVISIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER PROJECTS - LESSONS FROM FUKUSHIMA
PROSPECTS FOR LIQUID FUEL
ANTI MATTER: A FUTURE FUEL
ENZYME TO REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE SYSTEM
PROSPECTS FOR SHALE GAS IN INDIA
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN SHALE GAS DRILLING
PLANS OF COAL INDIA FOR COAL BED METHANE
CBM EXTRACTION VENTURE IN JHARKHAND
NEWS ROUND UP
OTHER ARTICLES

TALK OF THE MONTH

WHY ARE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN CHINA FORGING AHEAD AND NOT IN INDIA?

There have been huge concern in India in recent times about the lack of adequate focus on capacity creation in chemical industries in the country.As a result, import of chemicals in India are rapidly increasing, that can now be called as alarming level. Still, there is no indication that active steps would be taken to create manufacturing capacities for various chemicals in India to the extent required, in tune with the growth in the demand.

Under the circumstances, it appears to be inevitable that the demand for import of chemicals would further steadily go up in the country in the coming years, that would make India as global import hub for chemicals.

There is already enough indication that capacities for chemical projects are being built in countries like China, Korea and Middle East countries with an eye on grabbing the Indian market . Many of these countries are considerably banking on Indian market for their product outlet.

Obviously, Indian chemical industries appear to have lost the initiative in building capacities due to lack of pro active government policies and failure to build up appropriate investment climate in the country. In such conditions, it would be appropriate to ponder about the difference between the conditions in India and China and why massive growth in capacity creation are occurring in the chemical industries in China that are not happening in India. This is so, inspite of the fact that both the countries have number of similar advantages.

Government of China has succeeded in creating an appropriate investment climate in China, where multi national companies largely based in Europe and USA find it attractive to make their investment in China and build project capacities in China based on their advanced technologies. In this process, they not only build capacities in China with the objective of meeting the surging demand in China but also to use their investments and presence in China as spring board to market their products and services to other countries in Asia Pacific region. In this process, chemical industries in China have gained enormously.

It should be said to the credit of Government of China and project promoters in China that they have created high level of confidence amongst the overseas investors to enter and operate in China with long term prospective plans. China has gained by not only getting investment capital but also receiving substantial technology inputs. It would otherwise, have taken many years for China to develop such advanced technologies that are necessary to be competitive in the global market and forge ahead.

Obviously, neither the government of India nor the project promoters in India have been able to position themselves adequately, as have been done in China. Therefore, this implies that the difference between the conditions in India and China are basically due to their respective approaches to the issues and not any fundamental factors.

AGITATION AGAINST ENDOSULFAN IN INDIA

Endosulfan is insecticide and European Union (EU) in 2005 withdrew all authorisations for use of plant protection products containing endosulfan. In 2007, the EU sought listing of endosulfan as a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP ) before the Stockholm Convention.

Some 60 countries including the 27 EU members States and 21 in Africa have favoured banning the endosulfan.

US and the EU have banned endosulfan. It is not approved to be used in rice fields in several other countries. The use is severely restricted in others.

India is an important producer and exporter of endosulfan.

The Stockholm Convention, to which India is a signatory, requires parties to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment. POP Review Committee of the Convention agreed on categorising endosulfan as a POP.

Though many countries have banned endosulfan, indications are that India may not to do so at All India level, though the states of Kerala and Karnataka have banned the use of endosulfan. The Supreme Court of India has sought response from the Government of India on a petition seeking ban on endosulfan pesticide across the country.

The agitation against endosulfan reached a feverish pitch in India with the Chief Minister of Kerala going to the extent of resorting to a day long fast, demanding that the Government Of India should ban the use of endosulfan all over the country immediately.

The linkage between endosulfan and human miseries had come to the surface for the first time in Kerala state in India in the 1980s, when several cases of ailments and deaths were reported in the Kasargod district. .A few years back, the National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) had presented a report to the Government of India linking endosulfan to the prevalence of health disorders.

Recently, another study found that the indiscriminate use of the endosulfan in Kasargod in Kerala affected the biodiversity in the area. It was reported that there was plant diversity between 40% and 70%, particularly for native species compared to the natural habitat.

While there have been huge concern about the use of endosulfan in India amongst environmentalists,. Indian pesticide industry have opposed listing of endosulfan as a Persistant Organic Pollutant (POP) under the Stockholm Convention.

Perhaps, the argument of Indian pesticide industry is that endosulfan has been under use for several decades in India and not many accidents have been reported. Obviously, the problems are due to the indiscriminate spraying of endosulfan without following the stipulated standards by the innocent farmers and failure of pesticide industry to instruct and guide the farmers suitably.

Any pesticide is a killer and it should not be used more than the stipulated dosage level. There is need for balance between the necessity for use of pesticides and limiting its use to the extent possible.

The Government of India should follow the stand taken by several countries including those in European Union and ban the use of endosulfan in India, particularly in the present conditions, when the pesticide industry and the government agencies are unable to restrict the use of endosulfan within the prescribed standards. There are other pesticides which can be used to substitute for endosulfan and Indian pest control efforts will not come to a halt with the ban on use of endosulfan.

NEW INVESTIGATIVE PUBLICATION ON “GLOBAL OIL PRICE FLUCTUATION – WHY AND HOW?”

Singapore based Nandini Consultancy (S) Pte. Ltd., has now released an investigative and research oriented publication on “Global Oil Price Fluctuation – Why And How?”, that would provide clarity on the global oil price trend and behaviour, to the millions of investors, professionals and consumers around the world.

The book discusses the causes for uncertainty in oil price and the likely futuristic scenario, with number of tables and charts with explanatory notes and investigative analysis.

CONTENTS OF THE PUBLICATION

SECTION I INTRODUCTION

SECTION II HISTORY OF OIL PRICES

  • Oil price benchmarks & how do they work ?
  • World energy requirement and projections
  • Oil price history - Period 1947 to 2011
  • US petroleum consumption and price trend
  • Price drivers for crude oil

SECTION III CRUDE OIL DEMAND SITUATION

  • Crude oil demand (estimates by different agencies )
  • Crude oil demand – Countrywise
  • OECD vs non-OECD demand till 2015
  • Regionwise oil demand growth
  • Oil demand growth – China’s contribution

SECTION IV OIL PRICE SUPPLY SITUATION

  • World oil supply capacity growth
  • OPEC supplies ( 1973 – 2009 )
  • Non OPEC supplies ( 1973 – 2009 )
  • Global production and spare capacity in OPEC countries
  • World’s proven oil reserves
  • Expected incremental change in OPEC capacity
  • Non- OPEC supply capacity projection
  • Non- OPEC supply – Change by country
  • Unconventional sources of oil

SECTION V IMPACT OF SPECULATION ON OIL PRICES

SECTION VI POPULATION, GDP AND ENERGY INTENSITY

  • Geopolitical issues

SECTION VII MACRO CURRENCY ISSUES AND ITS IMPACT ON OIL PRICE

SECTION VIII CAN OIL PRICE BE REGULATED ?

SECTION IX HOW IS THE WORLD PLANNING TO TACKLE THE ISSUE ?

SECTION X INDIAN CRUDE OIL PREDICAMENT

SECTION XI PROGNOSIS

SIZE OF THE PUBLICATION: 75 PAGES

Author

Mr. Swaminathan Venkataraman is a Chemical Engineer and MBA from Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA), India with over twelve years of experience in management functions in global multinational organizations in Europe and Singapore. Mr.Swaminathan Venkataraman is presently Director of Nandini Consultancy (S) Pte. Ltd., Singapore.

For further details, please contact

Nandini Consultancy Centre

India, Chennai office : 44-24461346, 43511945, 24916037

Singapore office : +65-6827 4510, Mobile : +65-9112 2166

SODIUM TRI POLY PHOSPHATE INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
CAS No 7758-29-4
Molecular formula Na5P3O10
Appearance White free flowing slightly hygroscopic granule or powder
Form Hydrated form and anhydrous form
Solubility in Water 20% at 25 deg C

Stability

Sodium tripoly phosphate is more stable than the higher phosphates(STPP) and less stable than tetra sodium pyrophosphate.

If a concentrated solution of STPP is allowed to stand over a long period, sodium tripolyphosphate hexahydrate is precipitated.

The aqueous solution of STPP is stable below 70 deg. C

Above 70 deg.C, it decomposes into ortho and pyrophosphate.

Grades

STPP is produced in two grades namely industrial grade and food grade in accordance with its application sector.

This article discusses the following details :

  • Applications
  • Gradewise application
  • Indian import/export details
  • Antidumping duty
  • Indian manufacturer
  • Indian installed capacity
  • Indian production level
  • Indian demand
  • Growth rate in demand
  • Sectorwise demand
  • Global scenario
    • Global producers
    • New projects under planning/implementation
    • Global demand
    • Global growth rate in demand
  • Process
  • Prognosis
BISPHENOL A – PRODUCT PROFILE
Appearance

White crystalline powder having a slight phenolic odour

Molecular formula C15H6O2

Applications

Bisphenol A is used predominantly in the manufacture of epoxy resins and poly carbonate resin.

Application sectors

  • Epoxy resins
  • Polycarbonate resins
  • Phenoxy resins
  • Polysulphonic resins
  • Corrosion resistant polymer

This article discusses the following details :

  • Indian supply scenario
  • Indian annual imports details during the last four years
  • Pattern of countrywise import details
  • Demand supply scenario
  • CIF price trend of imported product
  • Price in China
  • Environmental issues
  • Global Scenario
    • Global installed capacity
    • Global demand
    • Growth rate in demand
    • Global producers and their capacity level
  • Scenario in China
    • China’s annual apparent consumption
    • Important producers
    • New projects
  • Process outline
  • Prognosis
ALL INDIA ESSAY COMPETITION FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS ON INDIA’S ENERGY NEEDS & OPTIONS BY 2020

Nandini Chemical Journal, conducted an All India Essay Competition for college students in March,2011. on “India’s Energy Needs & Options by 2020.

There was overwhelming response from college students all over India for the essay competition.

Ten students on all India basis have been selected for the awards in the essay competition.

Observations of the judges

The subject “ India’s Energy Options and Needs by 2020” is an intricate one and even the most experienced technologists , administrators and management professionals in the country find it difficult to come out with a tangible solution amongst various options.

Under the circumstances, it is gratifying that so many students from all over India have ventured to discuss the subject and provide their views in the best manner possible for them. Students have written their essays on the basis of careful study of the various information and data available in the public domain and observations made by experts and government spokesman from time to time. Many of them appear to have been overwhelmed by the subject and its complexities and such young minds have attempted to put their views within their limitations.

Nandini Chemical Journal tried its level best to publicise about this All India Essay competition amongst student community in the country by writing individually to more than five hundred reputed universities, professional colleges and educational institutions all over India . While some institutions responded by exhibiting the details in their notice boards, many institutions did not do so. Several students themselves pointed out this and said that they came to know about this important competition only by word of mouth.

If the message has reached more students , perhaps many more would have participated than a few hundreds that have done now.

SCRAP TYRE UTILIZATION INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY

Since used tyres can be retreaded as long as the carcass is not damaged, tyre retreading is the most direct, effective and economical way to recycle rubber.

For used tyre that cannot be retreaded, they can be used as it is or shredded and used as raw materials or used as burning fuel. By pyrolysis, the tyres are reduced primarily into products such as; carbon black, fuel oil, steel and other hydrocarbon gases.

In order to achieve sound scrap tyre utilization, there is need to establish complete waste tyre recycling system all over the country.

This article discusses the following details

  • Ecological issues
  • Process flow for recycling tyres
    • Pyrolysis process
  • Output products derived from scrap tyre
  • Practices in selected countries
    • USA
    • Canada
    • France
    • China
MUTUAL ACCEPTANCE OF DATA SYSTEM (MAD) FOR CHEMICALS & CHEMICAL PRODUCTS

The OECD Mutual Acceptance of Data system is a multilateral pact which can potentially save governments and chemical producers around €150 million every year by allowing the results of a variety of non-clinical safety tests done on chemicals and chemical product such as industrial chemicals and pesticides, to be shared across OECD and other signatory countries.

This article discusses the subject in detailed manner.

SAFETY PROVISIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER PROJECTS : LESSONS FROM FUKUSHIMA

Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) has announced steps to enhance safety in nuclear power projects.

The specialist panel appointed by the country's nuclear regulator Atomic Energy Regulatory Board to assess safety provisions at existing atomic power plants will comprehensively review the storage of spent fuel at all nuclear power plant sites.

This is besides a reassessment of the general preparedness of the 20 operational reactor units to deal with exigencies such as the Fukushima type disaster in Japan.

This article discusses the subject in detailed manner

PROSPECTS FOR LIQUID FUEL

In its June 2010 issue, the BP Statistical Review of World energy gave the 2009 lifetimes (measured by the ratio of proven resource to current production rate) as 45.7 years for oil and 62.8 years for gas, which do not bode well for the future of a fossil fuel based global economy.

This article discusses the following details

  • Liquid fuel from coal
  • Liquid fuel from biomass
  • Chemical treatment of vegetable oil
ANTI MATTER: A FUTURE FUEL

Anti matter can be used as a fuel because when matter comes in contact with antimatter, they both convert their total mass into energy and this energy can be used as fuel.

This article discusses the following details:

  • Energy potentials
  • Developments so far
  • Future prospects
ENZYME TO REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Codexis (Redwood City, CA), an enzyme technology firm, has made “significant progress” in its development of a commercial-scale enzyme that can reduce the energy consumption of carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems.

Codexis is jointly developing the technology with CO2 Solutions (Quebec, Canada), a CO2 technology company. Codexis announced details of its technology, a customized carbonic anhydrase enzyme, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) innovation summit that took place in Washington recently.

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.

PROSPECTS FOR SHALE GAS IN INDIA

The Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas of Government of India in mid-March, informed the Parliament in a written reply that the government has initiated action to identify prospective areas of shale gas resources as well as to formulate a policy for its exploration and exploitation.

Apart from the overall policy framework, it would be imperative to pay special attention to the design of fiscal policy and environmental norms that could accelerate the progress of shale gas development. Thus, success of the Indian shale gas industry would largely be a function of Government’s policy.

To make it attractive to the overseas companies, the government can extend the tax holiday vis-a-vis its conventional seven-year horizon.

This article discusses the following details :

  • Technology source
  • Characterisation of shale gas wells
  • Environmental issues
  • Government’s approach
  • Global recent shale gas deals
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN SHALE GAS DRILLING

A blowout at a gas well in popular camping spot, in the woods of the Punxsutawney hunt club, also in Clearfield County in Pennsylvania, USA, had shot a 23-metre (75ft) combustible gusher of gas and toxic waste water into the air.

It took the gas company, EOG Resources, 16 hours to control the well and the authorities had to carry out an evacuation.

The US government is now beginning to undertake a review of the chemicals that are used in hydraulic fracturing or "fracking", the relatively recent technique used to release vast stores of natural gas buried underground.

The technique uses millions of litres of water, sand and a battery of chemicals – including carcinogens such as benzene – injected at high pressure to fracture the rock and release the stored gas.

Environmental groups have exposed several persistent dangers: leaks in wells owing to faulty casing or migration through layers or rock; breaches in the above-ground tanks meant to store used drilling chemicals; and a rise in air emissions.

This article discusses the following details :

  • Carbon foot print of shale gas
  • Drilling in Pennsylvania, USA
  • Environmental issues
  • Shale gas facility of Sasol
  • Shale gas facility of PPG Industries
PLANS OF COAL INDIA FOR COAL BED METHANE

Coal India is planning to invite CBM (coal-bed-methane) players to capture methane in the five existing underground mines in the Jharia and Bokaro coalfields in Jharkhand.

The project will ensure mine safety while expanding operations and use the captured gas for captive generation or other productive purposes.

The project proposed is similar to CBM operations but more expensive and relatively complex.

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.

CBM EXTRACTION VENTURE IN JHARKHAND

Electrosteel Castings Ltd (ECL) has entered into a joint venture agreement with Brisbane-registered Dart Energy Ltd for exploration, development, production and sale of coal bed methane (CBM) from ECL's captive coal mine at Parbatpur in the Jharia Basin of Jharkhand.

Geological studies on the Parbatpur mine have identified 18 coal seams in the Barakar Formation, named after Barakar River, with a cumulative thickness of over 80 metres at depths between 200 and 1,100 metres. The Parbatpur coal seams have high gas content and gas saturation close to 100 per cent, requiring extraction of the CBM ahead of mining for regulatory and mine safety purposes.

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.

NEWS ROUND UP

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

INTERNATIONAL

  • Controversy over Birla Carbon's Columbian Chem buy
  • PVDF
  • Sodium methylate plant in Argentina
  • Acrylic acid and acrylate derivatives plant in Brazil
  • Ethane from natural gas
  • Planned North American ethylene expansions
  • Project for Cellulosic ethanol

INDIA

  • AkzoNobel opens industrial coatings plant
  • Specialty composite resins
  • Gas output from D6 block short of target
  • ONGC notifies oil, gas discoveries in western India
  • RIL gas output may fall further

AGRO CHEMICAL PAGE

The recent developments on the following products/events are highlighted:

  • Maize production trend in India
  • Refining process for Aloe vera
  • Sorghum licensing
  • Monsanto algae Deal
  • Seaweed as weight loss product

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Biobased fragrance ingredients
  • Biobased BDO
  • GIV3616 – A food additive
  • Storage of hydrogen
  • New fuel combination for more safe reactor
  • Dow develops foams retardant
  • Nano film to increase fruit and vegetable shelf life

CHINA NEWS

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • New Regulations For Polysilicon Industry In China
  • Nylon Plant
  • Evonik to expand PEEK capacity
  • Nitrobenzene
  • Sinopec-Kuwait Petroleum Refinery and Petchems JV
  • DSM Plans Composite Resin JV Facilities
  • PET joint venture
  • New Glass Fiber Manufacturing Facility in Hangzhou
  • Isocyanates
  • IPDI plant

ENERGY PAGE

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Indian solar power projects face hurdles
  • Indian wind energy scenario
  • Power from canals in Uttarakhand
  • Siemens' new turbine for low-wind areas
  • National fund to finance solar power technology
  • Waste to power plant in China

PHARMA PAGE

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Genetically modified fungus can fight malaria
  • EU ban on Ayurveda to hit Kerala hard
  • Codes for 100 million drug packs
  • Stem cell Regulations
  • No anti-dumping duty on penicillin-G 6-APA

ENVIRONMENTAL PAGE

The recent developments on the following products is discussed:

  • Brominated flame retardants

PRICE DETAILS

Global price trends on the following products are provided :

  • U.S. Butadiene price
  • Import price of phosphatic & potash fertilisers in India
  • Costlier raw materials forced hike in fertiliser prices
  • Rare earth prices
OTHER ARTICLES
  • Increasing import of acetone in India
  • Cassava root as biofuel
  • Blast at Sivakasi fireworks unit in Tamil Nadu, India
  • Indian coal shortage may trip 42000 mw of new projects
  • ONGC reworks coal bed methane development strategies
  • Tender
  • Chemicals imported at Chennai port during the month of February 2011
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