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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, May 2009

Coal gasification|Carbon dioxide|Plant closures|Polyvinyl alcohol
Highlights of Some of the Articles

COAL GASIFICATION PROJECTS – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
UTILISATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE
TRENDS AND HAPPENINGS IN INDIAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
PLANT CLOSURES IN RECENT TIMES ACROSS THE WORLD
NEWS ROUND UP
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS
REGULAR FEATURES
OTHER ARTICLES

COAL GASIFICATION PROJECTS – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

Coal gasification essentially works by putting either coal, petroleum coke (the heavy hydrocarbon residue left after crude oil has been cracked) or biomass in a gasifier. Water and oxygen or air are added at high pressures (up to 1,200 pounds per square inch) and temperatures of up to 1,427 deg.C to produce raw synthetic gas (Syngas). Sulfur, carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants are removed, leaving a feedstock comprising mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Coal-to-liquids and coal gasification plants can be readily adapted to produce an exceptionally broad range of feedstock. This potentially provides a major competitive advantage for US industry.

According to Virginia based Gasification Technologies Council, global gasification capacity is projected to grow by 70% by 2015, with about 80% of growth in the Asia-Pacific region.As feedstock costs have increased and concerns over security of feedstock supply are frequently raised, the use of coal as a feedstock is likely to increase.This is already happening in China, and the same could be expected in the US and other coal-rich countries.

This article discusses the following details :

  • Efforts of Foster Wheeler
  • Efforts of Eastman
  • Coal based power projects in USA
  • RTI – Eastman process
UTILISATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

To reduce the impact of carbon dioxide emissions on environment, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is becoming a focus subject for both scientific and industrial experts.

Presently, CCS is involved in expensive cost. The carbon dioxide utilization is expected to make benefit, at least offsetting part of the cost incurred from the emission reduction.

This article contains the following details :

  • Captured and concentrated carbon dioxide can be used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
  • Use of carbon dioxide in enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM)
  • Chemical use of carbon dioxide
  • Carbon dioxide recovery unit in Australia
TRENDS AND HAPPENINGS IN INDIAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

CASE STUDY OF SELECTED CHEMICALS
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL

Appearance

Dry solid. Commercially available in granular or powder form

CAS No.

9002-89-5

Molecular Formula

[ -CH2CHOH- ]n

Specific gravity

1.19 to 1.31

pH                                                     

Aqueous solution is neutral or slightly acid

Stability

Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage

Biodegradable

PVA is a biodegradable, water-soluble synthetic polymer. The degradation
products are water and carbon dioxide.

Grades

Polyvinyl alcohol is one of the few high molecular weight commercial polymers.

PVA is produced in four molecular weight ranges.

Viscosity grade

Nominal Mn

4% solution viscosity mPa.s(=cP)@

Low

25,000

5 to 7

Intermediate

40,000

13 to 16

Medium

60,000

28 to 32

High

100,000

55 to 65

@ Measured at 20 Deg C with Brookfield viscometer.

This article further discusses the following details :

  • Processing of the PVA
  • Application
  • Indian producer
  • Plant closure
  • New Project
  • Annual import of PVA
  • Pattern of countrywise imports
  • Demand drivers
  • Assessment of demand for PVA-Period April 2008 to March 2009
  • Application sectorwise demand
  • Pattern of demand
  • Global scenario
    • Capacity utilization
    • Global producers and their capacity
    • Regionwise installed capacity
    • Global application sectorwise demand
    • Global application sectorwise demand pattern
    • Regionwise demand pattern for PVA
  • Manufacturing process and Technology developments
  • Prognosis.
PLANT CLOSURES IN RECENT TIMES ACROSS THE WORLD

The article discusses the plans for closure of selected units by the following players

  • CNNC TD continues to close its titanium dioxide production lines
  • Chematura’s US operations file for bankruptcy
  • Nova Chemicals to cut US EPS capacity
  • Lucite idles methacrylic acid facility
  • BASF idles Ludwigshafen cracker for at least three months
  • due to weak demand
  • LyondellBasell to permanently shut olefins plant in Texas, USA
  • Asahi Kasei to quit polyester, monofilament pro
  • Mitsubishi Rayon postpones start up of carbon fiber plant
  • Merck KGaA plans cuts in pigments output
  • Mitsui, Sumitomo to exit polystyrene business
NEWS ROUND UP

NEWS ROUND UP – INDIA

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Bayer’s PU raw materials plant in India
  • GSFC to expand nylon 6 chips capacity
  • Natural rubber imports
  • Gas based IPPs in KG basin
  • NELP-VIII offers all time high 70 blocks

NEWS ROUND UP – INTERNATIONAL

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Bisphenol A
  • BASF and Dow open HPPO plant
  • Dow starts up S-SBR facility
  • New US Bioethanol enzyme plant
  • Biologics
  • Photovoltaic demand
  • Nanomaterials plan in USA
  • Methanol plants in Iran
  • Methanol plant in Vietnam

CHINA NEWS

The recent developments on the following products/events are updated :

  • New polysilicon projects in china
    • Propower Silicon project in China
    • Emei semiconductor
    • Fushun Koshuha Foundry
  • Phosphorus pentoxide
  • Carbon fiber industrial park
  • Coal to liquid project
  • Silica white project from slag
  • Monocrystalline silicon project
  • Melamine
  • Anti-infectives in China
  • China Cracker Expansion Plans

Supply and Demand volumes of major petrochemical products in China Period 2008

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS - INTERNATIONAL

The recent developments on the following technology efforts are highlighted

  • Genetically tweaked viruses can power cars
  • Methanol from Carbon dioxide
  • Lithium Battery Development Efforts
  • Use of less PET in bottles
  • E-mosquito to test blood
  • Cevec Amniocyte production technology

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT - INDIA

The recent developments on the following technology efforts are highlighted

  • IIT, Madras Research Park-I
  • To make tyre more environment friendly
  • Cobia Culture
REGULAR FEATURES

AGRO CHEMICAL PAGE - INTERNATIONAL

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Advance crop insect to increase yield
  • Turmeric can also reduce inflammation of bowel

PHARMA PAGE - INTERNATIONAL

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Clinical trials for TB vaccine begin
  • vitamin B1
  • Treatment for impotence based on nanotechnology

PHARMA PAGE - INDIA

  • Cheaper versions of Tamiflu drug
  • Export potential to USA for Vaccine

ENERGY PAGE

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Nanocapacitors with big-energy storage
  • Butane fuel cells for laptops and iPhones

PRICE DETAILS – INTERNATIONAL

Global price trends on the following products are provided :

  • Polyvinyl chloride
  • Propylene
  • Acrylonitrile
  • Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
  • Benzene
  • Purified Terephthalic Acid
  • Orthoxylene
  • Prices of chemicals in China as of April 7th, 2009
    • LLDPE
    • Fuel Oil
    • Natural Rubber
    • PTA
  • Spot Bulk Chemical Prices

ENVIRONMENTAL PAGE

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:

  • Guidelines for Carbon Footprint Programme in Japan
  • EU to phase out HCFCS
  • Scientists develop tracking system for nuclear waste
  • Emission-monitoring software

SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PAGE

Following safety and accident details are discussed:

  • Ammonia unit suffers explosion
  • Sulfuric acid tanker sinks off Sri Lanka

ANTI DUMPING PAGE

The antidumping measures introduced in  the various countries in the last few weeks on the following products are discussed:

  • VSF
  • Sodium Hydrosulphite
  • Ribonucleotide
  • Duty On Soda Ash From China
  • Acrylate
  • USA final ruling on HXDA
  • Vitamin E
  • STPP
  • Uncoated and copy paper imports
  • Ceramic Tiles

UPDATE ON BIOFUEL

The following recent developments on biofuel industry are discussed:

  • Shell, Codexis expand biofuel pact
  • New Biofuel Norms threaten palm oil exports to Europe
  • New GHG Norms for biofuel
  • Bacteria cure for barren soil to grow biofuel
OTHER ARTICLES
  • Anti-Dumping Probes Launched In 2008-09 In India
  • Update on Carbon Trading
  • Wind Mill Scenario In Tamil Nadu
  • GM Crops Make Headway In India
  • New Fluorinated Gas – R1234YF
  • New Polysilicon Projects In China
  • Scientists Use Diatoms To Produce Solar Energy
  • New Projects – International
  • Tender
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