Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Dec 2008
Hexene-1|Butyl rubber|Mammalian cells|Separation equipment
TALK OF THE MONTH
HEXENE-1 PRODUCT PROFILE
BUTYL RUBBER - INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
HARVESTING OF MAMMALIAN CELLS TO PRODUCE NEW DRUGS AND MEDICINES
GLOBAL MARKET FOR SEPARATION EQUIPMENTS IN PHARMA & BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES
GLOBAL MELT DOWN & THE INDIAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
The Government of India have been stating repeatedly that the Indian economy and industries have not been affected significantly due to global melt down. The government appears to have based it’s views on the so called self reliance in Indian economy which perhaps, mean that Indian economy is insulated to a large extent from international developments.
One would not know as to how far such analysis of the conditions in the country are appropriate and reliable. Many people think that the impact of global melt down on Indian economy and Indian industries in one way or the other is unavoidable and inevitable.
One gets the feeling that the Government of India is complacent about it’s views on the impact on India due to global melt down. It is yet to give definite guidelines to the Indian chemical industries in tackling the issues arising out of the global melt down. The Government is making some vague statements that the industries should reduce the prices to sustain the demand. No section of the industry appears to be convinced about such suggestion.
When the conditions are positive and favourable, the industries can manage the situation themselves. But in adverse conditions, the guidelines and support from the government become necessary. While it may be difficult to grasp the methods of global melt down in a clear manner and explain the reasons for it, the evidence of melt down is there for all to see.
In melt down scenario, the money availability has become scarce which have forced the consumers to opt for discretionary purchase. This means that the consumers buy only what is absolutely and immediately necessary and would not buy those products and services that can be optional and where the purchase decision can be postponed.
Indian chemical industry should quickly work out some strategies to convert such adverse scenario into opportunity by positioning itself in appropriate manner in the global sphere. The obvious advantage that India has is it’s vast manpower at skilled level and comparatively low cost of operations. Further, structure of Indian chemical industry is such that it is possible to produce products at low quantitative level compared to several companies in developed countries. The economic capacity of projects in India is comparatively small, which can be an advantage in the present global melt down conditions.
For the multi national companies in developed countries, Indian Chemical Industries can offer an opportunity to continue their production at reduced cost by contract manufacturing. The prudent strategy for the Indian chemical industry would be to partly convert itself as the contract manufacturing base for international organizations in a big way. Several companies particularly in the developed countries are reeling under high cost operating structure and they have to necessarily reduce the production cost to retain the market share and meet the consumer’s expectation. They would find the style of operation of Indian chemical industries appropriate to their immediate need .
The Government of India and Chemical Industries Associations should encourage the Indian chemical industry to showcase the opportunities for contract manufacturing in India to the developed countries. Possibly, such steps could have been taken much earlier when there was indication of the impending global melt down. But it would be better to do now than not doing at all.
Hexene-1 is mainly used as a co monomer of HDPE (high density polyethylene) and LLDPE (liner low density polyethylene). It can improve the tensile strength, impact resistance and tear resistance of polyethylene resins and is especially suitable for the production of packing films and agricultural covering films
Hexene-1 is used as an auxiliary material for HAO-LL product. HAO-LL is a linear low-density polyethylene in which comonomer is exchanged from 1-butene C4 to 1-hexene C6 or 1-octene C8, to improve the strength, heat-seal property and processability
LLDPE copolymerized with hexene-1 has excellent properties and is far superior to LLDPE copolymerized with butene-1.
This article contains the following details :
- General details
- Global production
- Important global players
- Technology licensors
- Project cost
Butyl rubber has relative impermeability to many fluids and to gases, which explains its use in the manufacture of tyre inner tubes. It is this impermeability which makes it exceptionally useful in the lining of equipment for use with deionised water or with steam.
Butyl rubber is extensively used in developed countries for manufacturing tubeless tyres because of the first class road conditions in developed countries. There would be an average petrol and diesel saving of 2.5% by using butyl tubes instead of natural tubes for tyres.
Butyl Rubber does not allow air to leak out, thereby preventing tyres from becoming soft and succumbing to punctures. Such tube enable tyres to last longer. Butyl tubes would give 25% more tyre life.
Salient characteristics of butyl rubber
* Low rate of gas permeability
* Thermal stability
* Ozone and weathering resistance
* Higher coefficient of friction
* Chemical and water resistance
This article discusses the following details:
- Poor mechanic properties
- Grades of butyl rubber
- Manufacturing process and technology development
- Indian production
- Indian imports
- Countrywise imports
- Indian demand supply trends
- Global scenario
- Growth in demand
- Global use pattern
- China scenario
- Global major players and capacities
- New projects
Mammals are composed of cells.Growing and harvesting mammalian cells outside of the human body and in the laboratory or factory to produce new drugs and medicines is one of the most exciting aspects of the modern life science industry.
These days, drug production based on cell culture is one of the fastest growing areas of biotechnology. Its rapid success owes much to the parallel development of technologies for the three key stages in cell culture growth: fermentation, harvesting and purification.
Harvesting is performed by separating the cell culture from the growing medium and several techniques are used to perform this delicate operation; centrifugation, microfiltration, depth filtration and filtration through absolute pore size membranes. Of the different techniques, centrifugation is the one most commonly used for scaling up from laboratory to factory production levels.
Most industrial applications use disc stack centrifuges to remove cells and cell debris from the nutrient broth. Disc stack centrifuges offer continuous operation, making their throughput consistent with the desire to limit the time for harvest operations.
Naturally, it is not quite as simple as it appears. Mammalian cells are very fragile organisms so. Although a disc stack centrifuge makes the job of separation relatively easy, the trick is to do so with minimal damage to the cells. Acceleration of the protein rich feed material takes a fraction of a second. But although speed is of the essence, it must not be at expense of destroying the highly shear-sensitive cell wall membrane which would release undesirable, intracellular proteins into the broth a process known as lysis.
By preventing additional lysis during acceleration, it is possible to increase the separator’s capacity while still achieving the required separation result.
Downstream purification of target proteins is also simplified and can be carried out using more compact equipment, thus generating significant savings in the process. The challenge, then, is to achieve maximum separation efficiency with minimal product disruption.
Just as cell culture has developed from relatively humble origins so has the equipment used to harvest it. In fact, from the earliest stages of cell culture science when Alfa Laval worked with industry leaders in the development of large scale cell culture fermentations, it soon became obvious that cell culture characteristics called for extremely gentle separator designs.
Several innovations have been made in the recent past.
In order to achieve the various levels of required cleanliness in biotechnology industry, different technologies are used. Reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, cartridges, and macro filtration processes such as filter presses, sedimentation and centrifugation are all utilized. The market size of each method are provided below.
This article further discusses the following details
- 2008 market share for reverse osmosis,ultrafiltration and microfiltration
- 2008 market shares by filtration type
- 2008 market share for each type of cartridge filter
- 2008 market share of macro filtration products
- Market share for sedimentation and centrifugation
- Demand Trend For Engineering Plastics Findings Of The Study
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- Bioforming Process To Turn Plant
- Sugars To Biofuels And Chemicals
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