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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Apr 2008

Phenol|Refrigerant R-134A|Isopropyl Alcohol|Mancozeb|Wind energy|PTMEG
Highlights of Some of the Articles

TALK OF THE MONTH
FOCUS ON GLOBAL SCENARIO FOR BUILDING BLOCKS - PHENOL
REFRIGERANT R-134A - SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVES
ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL- PRODUCT PROFILE
MANCOZEB – INDIA FORGING AHEAD
POTENTIAL FOR WIND ENERGY IN INDIA
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL – PTMEG
PROFITING THROUGH GREEN ENERGY IN CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
OTHER ARTICLES

Talk of the Month

ENERGY POLICY - GOVERNMENT’S LACK OF CLARITY IS COSTING THE COUNTRY DEARLY

The price of crude oil, which has been climbing steadily for the last few years has now touched the record level of 112 US $ per barrel, which no one could even imagine a decade back.

However, in the recent past, there have been enough indications that the price of crude oil would go up. While several reasons are attributed for this increase, the consensus opinion is that the price has been going up due to the increasing industrial and economic activities in the world particularly in China and consequent greater global demand.

Anticipating such trend, the developed countries in America and Europe have been taking some pragmatic steps to face the impending crisis. Encouragement provided to the biofuel industry is one such positive step. There have been number of other initiatives in the research and development field to develop new technologies that would optimise the energy consumption and develop new sources of energy. One gets the impression that inspite of such increase in price of crude oil, there is no panic in the developed countries who have responded to the scenario with adequate forward planning.

However, the condition in India is different. There is not only confusion but also panic in the energy front.

The Government of India has clearly failed in it’s duty and responsibility to give proper guidance and direction to the Indian industries and service sectors, in facing upto crude oil price issues.

India has been talking about jatropha based biofuel as a possible way out for India to face the fuel crisis. Many seminars have taken place and hundreds of articles have been written about various aspects of jatropha biofuel and its relevance to India. While the government has also set up committees to investigate the issues, nothing worthwhile has happened so far, commensurate with the need and requirement. This clearly shows the lethargic attitude on the part of the Government of India.

Indian industries have clearly pointed out that the jatropha biofuel project in India would not be viable, unless the government would extend adequate fiscal incentives and subsidy support for the project. This is so, in view of the need to ensure adequate margin for  the investors and returns to the agricultural farmers
cultivating jatropha.

Such level of subsidies and incentives should certainly be well acceptable for the government, particularly while considering the present out flow of foreign exchange due to the import of crude oil and the vulnerable situation that India faces on the energy issues. There are many other benefits that would accrue by encouraging the jatropha based biofuel industries, such as promoting employment opportunities in the agricultural front and greater utilisation of the barren and unutilised agricultural land in India. Unfortunately, government is not able to make up its mind and has wasted valuable time and opportunities.

Obviously, the Government of India has no solution for the present energy crisis and seem to have run out of ideas.

Ofcourse, the government has been talking a lot about the importance of stepping up nuclear power capacity, Indo-US nuclear deal etc. But the issues are now caught in hopeless political controversies.

There are immense opportunities to step up hydroelectric power generation, particularly in northeastern region which still remains untapped.

Energy opportunities in other non conventional areas such as solar, wind power, wave power etc. are still being pursued without adequate speed and dynamism.

Even now, the Government of India can take some initiatives. What is needed is to forge ahead in R&D front and provide opportunities to Indian scientists and technologists to find a way out of the energy crisis.

Government of India can certainly spend a few thousand millions of rupees towards financing the R&D efforts and put some talented scientists who are available in plenty in India, to work on the subject.

Today, in India, it appears that spending and writing off millions of rupees is not an issue. But it is not clear as to why the government hesitates to spend when it involves subject of R&D on issues as vital as energy.

The history would judge that the government of India has failed to respond to the challenges in the energy front and that it left the Indian industries in confusion and hopeless situation.

FOCUS ON GLOBAL SCENARIO FOR BUILDING BLOCKS - PHENOL

Phenol is a colourless to yellow crystals which turn pink on exposure to light and air

Molecular Formula              C6H6O

Product Specification

Technical grade

Colour & Appearance         White crystalline material at room temperature
Purity wt. %                      99.98

Pharma grade

Description    USP 28          JP XIV            EP 5
Assay             89.0%             88.0%             89.0%

Product Applications

Application sector

Nature of application

Synthetic Resin

Used in production of phenol formaldehyde resins.

Phenol formaldehyde resins are used in laminates, plywood, foundry, moulding powder, leather, paint, foundry etc

Pharmaceuticals

Used in the manufacture of drugs and drug intermediates

Dyestuffs

Used in manufacturer of dyestuff intermediate

Leather sector

Tanning agent

Derivative products

Bisphenol – A, Alkyl phenols like Nonyl, Octyl, Dodecyl, Cumyl phenol etc., Metaphenoxy benzaldehyde

This article further discusses the following details:

  • Important phenol derivatives
  • Global installed capacity
  • Global regionwise capacity pattern
  • Major global manufacturers and their installed capacity
  • Closure of plant
  • New projects
  • Global demand
  • Application sectorwise demand
  • Estimated growth rate in demand
  • Manufacturing process
  • One step phenol synthesis process – Developed by Daicel Chemical Industries
  • Solutia’s new route to Phenol
  • One step process for phenol – Developed by Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
  • One step process for phenol – Developed by Researchers in Japan
  • Indian scenario
  • Indian producers and their capacity
  • Annual All India production level of Phenol
  • Annual imports
  • Pattern of countrywise imports
  • Anti dumping duty
  • Demand drivers
  • Indian demand for phenol (period 2008-09)
  • Pattern of demand
  • Gap in supply
  • Prognosis
REFRIGERANT R-134A - SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVES

To help meet the EU’s Kyoto Protocol obligations, the European Commission issued a directive in 2006 mandating the phaseout of refrigerant R134a in mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems and its replacement by refrigerants with a GWP not higher than 150. As of 2011, a ban on R-134a systems will apply to all new models and as of 2017, to all cars.

A mandatory phase out of the refrigerant R-134a in European cars has prompted fluorocarbon manufacturers to develop alternatives.  They look for alternative refrigerant that would minimize transition costs, perform as well as meet the current global standard - the fluorocarbon R-134a - and provide good lifecycle climate performance.

In 2007, the members of the German Association of Automotive Industry (VDA), prompted by an European Union mandate, jointly decided to employ air conditioning systems using carbon dioxide , rather than a fluorocarbon as the refrigerant.

European carmakers have two immediate choices namely carbon dioxide and R-152a both requiring considerable redesign in A/c units.

R-152a

R-152a CH3CHF2 has a GWP of 140. However, because it is flammable, it cannot be used in systems of the kind now found in cars. Instead, the AC unit must be equipped with an isolating secondary loop, which will add to weight and expense.

Carbon dioxide

The other option is carbon dioxide - also known as R-744. Several automotive suppliers have been developing carbon dioxide -based MAC systems and components, including Nippon Denso in Japan, Behr in  Germany and Delphi and Visteon in the US.

Carbon dioxide based air conditioning systems are used industrially, but none has been installed in a car, partly owing to the engineering challenges posed by  carbon dioxide. One of the challenges is the high pressure required in the system, up to 10 times those of fluorocarbon-based systems.

The high pressures required by carbon dioxide result in higher “indirect” greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., from the tailpipe).

Another is the inefficiency of operating above a refrigerant’s critical temperature or transcritically - carbon dioxide has a very low Tc of 31 degrees centigrade.

This article also contains the following details

  • Comparison of carbon dioxide and R152-a
  • Blends of Fluid H, DP-1 and AC-1
  • HFO-1234yf
  • Prospects for carbon dioxide systems
ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL- PRODUCT PROFILE
Appearance   Stable hygroscopic colourless liquid
Chemical formula   C3H8O
CAS No   67-63-0
Stability   Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Heat and sunlight can contribute to instability
Density    1.3802

Grades

  • 91% purity
  • 95% purity
  • 99% purity

PRODUCER’S SPECIFICATION

Name of the producer: ExxonMobil Chemical, USA

Grade: USP

Properties

Specification

Purity wt%

99.8 min

Acidity, as acetic acid, wt%

0.002 max

Colour, Platinum - Cobalt scale

10 max

Distillation range deg C

1 Deg C. range including 82.3 deg C

Non-volatile matter,

0.001 max g per 100 ml

Specific gravity at 20 deg C

0.7862 to 0.7870

Water content, wt%

0.1 max

Water miscibility

Clear and miscible

Name of the Organisation : Deepak Fertilisers and Petrochemicals Corpn. Ltd.India

Properties

Specifications

Purity

99.7% to 99.9% W/w

Residue

12 PPM W/W Max

Water Content

650 PPM W/W Max

Miscibility with

Water Complete

Acidity as Acetic Acid

10 PPM W/W Max

Color Hazen Units

10 Max

Distillation Range

81.5 to 83

Specific Gravity @ 25oc

0.782 - 0.784

PRODUCT APPLICATIONS

Application sector

  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Polymer
  • Surface coating
  • Cosmetics
  • Raw material for production of Acetone and other derivative products

This article further discusses the following aspects

  • Sectorwise application
  • Annual imports
  • Countrywise imports
  • Indian manufacturers
  • Unit not in operation
  • Demand drivers
  • Indian demand
  • Manufacturing process and technology development
  • Global scenario
  • Global capacity
  • Global demand
  • Global growth pattern
  • Global demand pattern
  • Major global producers and their installed capacity
  • Profile of major producers
MANCOZEB – INDIA FORGING AHEAD

Molecular sieves are a certain kind of zeolites, which due to their pore size and chemical composition have particularly developed adsorption properties, which means that they are capable of separating or removing one substance from another on a molecular scale.

The term ‘molecular sieve’ is derived from the ability to sieve molecules. Hence, molecular sieves differ from other adsorbents, such as silica gel or activated alumina, which have very wide pore distribution.

Molecular sieves are useful to efficiently remove low concentrations of polar or polarizable contaminants such as water, methanol, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, carbon disulphide, mercaptans, sulfides,
ammonia, aromatics and mercury to trace concentrations, which are used to separate molecules by size.

They are used in petrochemical production and oil refining, processing of natural gas, industrial gas and air separation, refrigerant drying and other applications.

Product characteristics

Molecular sieves are produced in various forms such as beads, granules, pellets, powders.

Molecular sieves can withstand temperature upto 90 deg C.

Classification

Molecular sieves are materials containing tiny pores of a precise and uniform size that is used as an adsorbent for gases and liquids having a network of pores, with different diameters (measured in Ångstroms).

It is these diameters that classify molecular sieves such as 3Å, 4Å, 5Å, and 10Å (also known as 13X).

The molecular sieve type, size and particle shape are customary for each application.

For example, 4 to 8-mesh sieve (pellet, bead or granule) is used in gas phase applications, while the 8 to 12-mesh type (pellet, bead or granule) is commonly
used in liquid phase applications.

Composition of molecular sieves

Type Composition

3Å molecular sieve

0.6 K2O: 0.40 Na2O : 1 Al2O3: 2.0 SiO2: x H2O

4Å molecular sieve

1 Na2O: 1 Al2O3: 2.0 ± SiO2 : x H2O

5Å molecular sieve

0.80 CaO : 0.20 Na2O : 1 Al2O3: 2.0 ± 0.1 SiO2: x H2O

10Å molecular sieve

1 Na2O: 1 Al2O3 : 2.8 ± 0.2 SiO2 : xH2O

This article further discusses the following details:

  • Indian Scenario
  • Indian installed capacity
  • Indian producers
  • New projects
  • Mancozeb production
  • Individual import details of Mancozeb technical
  • Usage norm
  • Broad outline of manufacturing process
  • Global producers of Mancozeb technical
  • India forging ahead
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL – PTMEG

Polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) is white waxy solid and may become transparent pale yellow or colorless liquid over room temperature.

Specification

Index

Product type

 

1800

2000

Hydroxide value mgKOH/g

 60.6 to 64.1

54.7 to 57.5

Molecule weight

1750 to 1850

1950 to 2050

Water,%

< 0.015

Acid value,mgKOH/g

< 0.05

Colour [60°C,(Pt-Co)]

< 35

Solubility

PTMEG does not dissolve in water or aliphatic hydrocarbon but easily dissolves in alcohol, ester, ketone, aromatic hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon, while the solubility decreases as its molecular weight increases.

PTMEG easily absorbs water in the air under ambient temperature and its water-absorbability decreases as its molecular weight increases.

Application

PTMEG is mainly used in the production of spandex fiber, PU elastomer and ester/ether copolymerized elastomer.

Besides, the application of PTMEG in non-fiber sectors, it is mainly concentrated in the PU elastomer production. Small amounts are also used in PU size, coating, adhesive and sealing agent sectors.

It provides good water dissolving resistance, low temperature resistance and dynamic nature to polyurethane product.

PTMEG constitutes the difunctional glycol component in a variety of polyurethane systems, and is used for the soft flexible block in the production of thermoplastic and thermoset polymer systems - predominantly elastomeric systems, thermoplastic urethane cast elastomers and RIM (Reaction Injection Molding).

This article further discusses the following details :

  • Consumption norm
  • Process
  • Global producers
  • Profile of major producers
  • Producers in China
  • New projects in China
  • Demand potential
  • Global demand
  • Global consumption pattern of PTMEG
  • Global growth rate in consumption
  • Estimated demand in China
  • Technology development
  • Indian scenario
ALTERNATIVE FUELS SCENARIO IN USA

Contributed by: Mr.S.Rajha Gopalan,
President & CEO, Renco Technologies Private Ltd. (Renco)

Renco Technologies Private Ltd. (Renco) is a Green Energy Intervention Services Company offering a “One Stop Centre Concept’ for Green Energy Projects in India and has been operating in Chennai, India for 
the last 7 years, with Associates in London, Vienna & New York.

Renco sources and originates Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects for generating Carbon Credits, right from the preparation of Project Idea Notes (PINs) & Project Design Documents (PDDs), through
to arranging Validation, obtaining Host Country Approval and registering these projects with the UNFCCC in Bonn for obtaining Certified Emission Reduction Certificates (CERs). Thereafter, they arrange the sale to International Buyers in Europe, Japan & USA and in some cases obtain up-front financing for the Green Energy Projects
For further details, please contact

Renco Technologies
Phone:+(91 44) 2498 8950, +(91 44) 4218 7844
Mobile:(+) (91) 98407 50215
E-mail: rajha.gopalan@rencotech.com, rencoindia@hotmail.com
Web: www.rencotech.com

Kyoto Protocol

  • 6 Green house gases covered are CO2, CH4, HFC, PFC, SF6 & N2O
  • Commitment for overall emission reductions of 5.2% (on average) from 1990 levels by Annex I parties (developed countries)
  • Collective responsibility but differentiated targets !
  • Annex I parties (Examples : Europe 5.5 % , Japan 6% , etc.)
  • 1st Kyoto commitment period was from 2008 to 2012 and its going to be extended from 2013 onwards known as “bali road map”.

Application of green energy in chemical industries

  • Specific energy consumption can be reduced  by implementing energy efficiency programme by installation of suitable energy efficient equipments / systems / devices in the plant.  
  • Replacing the fossil fuel use from the existing operations with green energy resources by adopting suitable technologies and systems and thereby reducing GHG emission.
  • Recovery of waste heat / process heat from the process and effective utilisation of the same for meeting their energy needs and thereby reduce the consumption of fossil fuel currently in use.
  • Process industries utilising agro-based raw materials (leaves/stems/ roots/flowers/fruits/ seeds/kernels) of different plants of botanical origin) can explore the possibilities of effectively using the residues/solid waste generated from the process for their energy needs.
  • Capturing the emissions of GHG gases (other than Co2) from the process and the same using suitable technologies and systems.
  • Collection & effective utilisation of process effluents for generation of bio-gas adopting state-of-art technologies and meeting the energy needs of the plant
  • Setting-up own captive power plant, utilizing green energy resources to meet the energy needs for the process instead of grid power & thereby reducing GHG emission.

This article further discusses the following aspects:

  • Defining carbon credit
  • Buyers of carbon credit
  • CDM project development guidelines
  • The `upfront costs’ for undertaking the assignment for obtaining ‘carbon credits’
  • Global market for carbon credits – 2007
  • CDM project cycle
  • Indian carbon credit scenario – Good news
  • CDM market share (supply side)
  • Indian carbon credit scenario – Bad news
OTHER ARTICLES
  • New Extension Policy for Coal Bed Methane Contracts
  • Progress of New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP)
  • Update on Carbon Trading
  • Anti Dumping Page
  • Update on Nanotechnology
  • Update on Biofuel
  • Water Soluble Fertilisers
  • Prospects for Saline Power Project
  • China News
  • News Round Up – International & India
  • Technology Development – International & India
  • Ask for the Chemical Facts Free
  • Agro Chemical Page – International & India
  • Efficiency of Pesticides Findings of the Study
  • Environmental Page
  • Pharma Page – International & India
  • Energy Page – International & India
  • Business Opportunities
  • Tender
  • Price Details - International
  • Spot Bulk Chemical Prices
  • New Projects - International
  • Directory of International Biotechnology Organisations
  • Chemicals Imported at Chennai Port during the month of November 2007
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