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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Dec 2006

Plant-derived products|Titanium sponge|Vegetable fiber
Highlights of Some of the Articles

TALK OF THE MONTH
TITANIUM SPONGE - INDIA ENTERING THE FIELD
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL: 2-AMINOETHOXYETHANOL
AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY IN INDIA: STATUS REPORT
ARTICLES ON HERBAL AND PLANT DERIVED PRODUCTS
OTHER STORIES
OTHER ARTICLES

TALK OF THE MONTH

NATURAL PRODUCTS BASED INDUSTRY - FOCUS AREA FOR FUTURE

In recent times, there have been rapid developments in genomics, molecular biology and proteomics resulting in the identification of new product development opportunities and opening new avenues for discovery of new drugs.

New detection, separation methods and improved analytical tools have greatly enhanced the ability to discover new active compounds. The drug design and molecular modeling tools, along with the capability for parallel synthesis of arrays of analogs, enable optimisation of desirable characteristics of new leads creating immense R&D and investment opportunities.

There are immense opportunities for India to conduct basic and applied multi disciplinary research to discover and develop natural products for use as pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements and agrochemicals, to understand the biological and chemical properties of medicinal plants and to gain leadership in natural products research in the world.

The immediate task is to focus on discoveries and developing bioactive natural products from plant, marine or any microbial sources for developing new pharmaceutical drugs or pesticides/ agrochemicals and even perfumery and cosmetic products . Organised and sustained efforts have to be put forth to obtain samples from various sources through which lead compounds can be identified in these products.

There is need for repository of large natural product specimens, extracts and pure compounds. Besides, there is need for several molecular modeling laboratories in different parts of India which can help to understand the molecular structure and also have a new drug design.

Pharmaceutical companies such as Nicholas Piramal, Dabur, Zydus Cadila, Dr Reddy’s, Lupin, Cipla, Sami Labs are already looking at bioactive molecules seriously and screening of natural products for bioactive molecules. Such organisations should be given the necessary support and encouragement.

There is urgent need to bring together an alliance of Universities, government and the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries to integrate research, development, and commercialisation of relevant natural products.

New technology-based small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) can play key role in converting the results of industrial and academic research into innovative products and services. This sector presently accounts for more than 50% of economic, industrial output in India and can emerge as the most dynamic in terms of performance and achievement.

The climate and the structure for leveraging private funding for technology innovation have to be considerably augmented and strengthened so that the SMEs can play their role to the level of their potentials and capabilities. India also needs an integrated capital market from seed funding to stock market, which will accelerate innovation and technology development efforts.

Further, globalisation efforts towards innovation is critical. Managements must be able to work outside its own borders and deal with other culture and market so that it can be benefited by knowledge development and natural resources availability in different parts of the world. This is a big step and would be a sign of maturity for a company. The industries should look for the biggest possible technology and market optimization in the field of natural products and the more global, the better it is. This means the company is likely to make more revenues faster, which means they get their money back faster.

A user-friendly match making platform for SMEs, venture capitalists and business enterprises is required to forge ahead in quick time in tune with the available natural resources and their potentials for exploitation.

TITANIUM SPONGE - INDIA ENTERING THE FIELD

Titanium known for its excellent corrosion resistance, high strength and low density is used for aero-gine and airframe structures in both civilian and military aircraft. Titanium-alloy components also find applications in satellite launch vehicles, rockets and missiles. Titanium is thus regarded as a metal of strategic importance.

Excellent corrosion resistance of titanium to a wide range of chemicals, acids and alkalies has led to its use in thermal and nuclear power plants, desalination plants, fertilizer and petrochemical plants and electroplating industries. Bio-medical implants, sports goods, automobiles, and architecture and consumer durables are some of the other emerging areas of titanium applications

With the successful demonstration of titanium sponge production technology by DRDO by the advanced ‘Combined Process Route’ and magnesium metal by .Fused-Salt Electrolysis. in multipolar cell, India is poised for commercial production of titanium.

Titanium sponge is the semi-processed form of titanium, a metal with wide aerospace, defence and atomic energy applications.

Titanium metal are utilized by the aerospace industry for uses including crucial engine parts and by general industry, mainly for uses such as plate heat exchangers. It is also used as an additive in manufacturing special stainless steels.

The titanium sponge used for crucial engine parts in particular is called a premium grade.

Product

Application areas

Titanium Ingot (Commercially Pure & Alloy)

Airplane, Space Rocket.

Chemical Plant, Desalination Plant, Automobile, Bicycle, Golf Club, Glasses, Camera, Watch, etc.

High Purity Titanium

Titanium Sputtering Targets for

Ingot and Bilet

Semiconductor Products and Liquid Crystal Device

Titanium Powder

Powder Metalurgy Sputtering Target Intermetallic Compound

Additive for Steel

This article further discusses the following details:

  • Manufacturing process
  • Global producers
  • Global demand
  • Technology development efforts of DRDO, India
  • Salient features
  • Proposed project of KMML
  • Titanium Project in Orissa
  • Research Efforts for Titanium metal powder
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL: 2-AMINOETHOXYETHANOL

This article discusses the application aspects and process technology as well as Indian import/export trends for 2-Amino Ethoxy Ethanol.

Appearance

Clear to very slight yelow liquid

Synonyms

DiglycolamineDiethyleneglycol

m o n o a m i n e 2 - Hydroxyethyloxyethylamine; ADGDGA

CAS No.

929-06-6

EINECS No.

213-195-5

Molecular Formula

C 4 H 11 NO 2

Odour

Mild amine odor

Boiling Point

223 to 224 deg C

Specific Gravity

1.06

Viscosity

Slight

Solubility

Miscible in water, alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons, but relatively immiscible with aliphatic hydrocarbons and ethyl ether.

Stability

Stable

This article further discusses the following details:

  • Producer’s specification
  • Application sector and Details of sectorwise application
  • Present price
  • Global players
  • Global Production
  • Demand Drivers
  • Sectorwise demand for 2-Aminoethoxyethanol-Period 2006
  • Pattern of application sectorwise demand-Period 2006
  • Manufacturing process from Diethylene glycol
AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY IN INDIA: A STATUS REPORT

The Bio Agriculture sector in India comprises plant-derived pharmaceuticals, biotechnological development in crops and livestock, marine science and forests.

In 2005-06, the Indian biotech industry grew by an impressive 37.42% to reach Rs.6, 521 crore (US$ 1,45 billion). In 2004-05, it registered a growth of over 150% with a value of USD 73.3 million as compared to USD 28.9 million in 2003-04.

Contributing to a share of 9% of biotechnology market value, the agribiotech is the fastest growing segment at 80% of sales of Rs.598 crore driven by the revenue growth of the leading Bt cotton companies. Bt cotton seeds sales accounted for 76.75% of agri-biotechnology in 2004-05 followed by bio-pesticides, and bio-fertilisers. In value terms, Bt cotton seeds revenue s in 2004-05 were USD 56.3 million, recording a growth of 369% over the previous year. Bt Cotton is the first and remains the only approved genetically modified crop in India since 2001. In 2005,

the area under Bt cotton in India grew by approximately 160% to reach 1.3 million hectares as compared to 0.5 million hectares in 2004.

Courtesy: Agri Export Advantage:September 2006 issue

This article further discusses the following details:

  • Industry Composition
  • Focus areas for development
  • Seed Industry
  • Development
  • Biofertilisers and Biopesticides
  • Functional genomics project
  • Government Incentives
  • Indo-US cooperation
  • Growth of Indian Biotechnology
  • Sectoral breakdown of biotechnology firms
  • Foreign Alliances with Biotechnology firms
  • Indian Biotechnology market share
  • Investment
ARTICLES ON HERBAL AND PLANT DERIVED PRODUCTS

SUGAR PROJECTS IN UTTAR PRADESH LEAPING AHEAD

Between 2004-05 and 2006-07, Uttar Pradesh (UP) will see as many as 28 new sugar mils commissioned.

These factories will together have the capacity to crush almost 200,000 tonnes of sugarcane daily (tcd). If brownfield expansions are included, the extra capacity created in these three years would work out to well over 300,000 tcd.

UP’s aggregate crushing capacity, which was below 400,000 tcd before 2004-05 would cross 700,000 tcd by the end of this season, a 75 percent jump in just three years! At an average Rs.1500 million per factory, it involves an investment of Rs.42,000 million in Greenfield projects alone and roughly Rs 60,000 million , if one also factors in expansion of existing mills.

If al the mills were to crush an extra 300,000 tpd for 150 days of the year, they would consume additional cane of 45 million tonnes, Considering average yields of around 60 tonnes per hectare in UP, the mils will require to bring in another 7.5 lakh hectares of cane area under their command. Half of this may come from existing cane-growers, who, instead of supplying to gur and khandsari-making units would now sell at a higher price to sugar mils. The rest will have to come from fresh land brought under cane.

This article further describes the following details:

  • Greenfield sugar units in Uttar Pradesh
  • Likely sugar production during 2006-07

RAMIE - A VEGETABLE FIBRE FOR FABRIC PRODUCTION: INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY

Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is a cellulosic substance and one of the strongest vegetable fibres, exhibiting even greater strength when wet. Due to its remarkable properties, it is used in the manufacture of wide variety of textiles and cordage products.

Ramie fibre is known especially for its ability to hold shape, reduce wrinkling and introduce silky lusture to the fabric appearance. It is similar to flax in absorbency, density and microscopic appearance. Due to its highest strength, length and durability, it is blended with other fibres such as jute, cotton, wool and polypropylene to enhance resilience and comfort. Other properties include resistance to alkalies, rotting, light and mildew as well as to insects.

This article contains the following details:

  • Uses
  • Cultivation
  • Extraction
  • Global Production Trend
  • Global consumers

SCHISANDRA FRUIT - MEDICINAL PLANT WITH POTENTIALS

Schisandra fruit, a member of the magnolia family, is a woody vine with numerous clusters of tiny, shiny,oily, bright red berries.

The medicinal part is the fully ripe sun-dried fruit, which has sour taste. This unusual assortment of flavors is reflected in Schisandra.s Chinese name .Wu-wei-zi, which means. “five taste fruit”.

Schisandra is cultivated in northeastern China, especially in the provinces of Jilin, Lianoning, Heilongjiang, and Hebei.

Schisandra is propagated from seed in spring. The fruit is harvested in autumn when it is full ripe.

Schisandra contains a number of compounds, including essential oils, numerous acids and lignans. Lignans (schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin, gomisins, and pregomisin) are found in the seeds of the fruit and have a number of medicinal actions

Main Content

Ingredient

Molecular formula

Content in %

Gamma-schisandrin

C 23 H 28 O 6 (0.286%~0.317);

 

Schisandrol

C 24 H 32 O 7

(2.24%~9.87% for Schisandra,0.004%~0.790% for Schisandra sphenanthera);

Schisanhenol

C 23 H 30 O 6

0.021%~0.41% for Schisandra Chinesis,

0.068%~7.57% for Schisandra sphenanthera);

 

 

Schisandrol B

C 22 H 30 O 7

 

This article also contains the following details:

  • Application
  • Human trials
  • Processing
  • Product specification
  • Dosage
  • Safety

BERBERINE- ANTI DIABETIC HERBAL DRUG

Berberine is an alkaloid that is derived from Coptis chinensis and can be found in the roots, rhizomes,stem and bark of the plants.

It has pharmaceutical efficacy such as antibacterial, antifungal, treatment for hypertension, hyperlipemia, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus and antiplatelet effect. Recently, anti-tumour promoting activities of berberine has been identified

The studies in animal models of diabetes show that berberine acts in part by activating an enzyme in the muscle and liver that is involved in improving sensitivity of the tissue to insulin. This in turn, helps lower blood sugar levels. In addition, it seems berberine can help reduce body weight.

Berberine-containing plants are used medicinally in many traditional medical systems, including Ayurvedic and Chinese herbal medicine

Latin name

Common name

Part used

Berberis aquifolium

Oregon Grape

Rhizome, Root

Berberis aristata

Tree turmeric

Root

Berberis vulgaris

Barberry

Outer bark of stem, root

Coptis chinensis

Coptis or Goldenthread

Rhizome

Hydrastis Canadensis

Goldenseal

Rhizome,Root

This article also contains the following details:

  • Chemical composition of the product
  • Research Efforts
  • Efforts at Garvan Institute, Australia

PROFITABLE EXPLOITATION OF BAMBOO

The National Mission on Bamboo Technology and Trade Development was launched by the National Planning Commission with the sole objective of utilising bamboo as a means of reclaiming degraded land, conserving soil and improving the environment.

In India, bamboo, is considered a major export item and the global market is valued at about Rs.500,000 million .

The annual turnover of the bamboo sector in India is estimated to be around Rs.25,000 million.In India, the North-East has the largest stock and diversity of bamboos. Next comes the Western Ghats.

Though India has the largest area under bamboo, which is estimated at around 9.6 million hectares, the yield per hectare is estimated at around 0.4 tonnes, which is very low compared to other countries such as Japan, China and Malaysia. About 80 per cent of the world’s bamboo comes from these countries, while India, though having more than 100 different species of bamboo, has only about 4 per cent share in the global market.

This article also contains the following details:

  • The ecological benefits
  • Cultivation practices
  • Bamboo fabrics
  • Economics of bamboo project
OTHER STORIES

PROGRESS OF COAL GASIFICATION PROJECTS IN INDIA

CBM (Coal bed methane) is an alternative source of hydrocarbons, which is extracted from the coal seams from the coal bearing areas.

Coal gasification is a process that converts coal from a solid to a gaseous state. The gas that is created is very similar to natural gas and can be used to make chemicals, fertilisers and/or electric power.

Cleanest of all coal-based electric power technologies, gasification has significantly lower levels of air emissions (including volatile mercury), solid wastes and wastewater.

With huge coal reserves in the country, the CBM extraction would supplement the conventional sources of natural gas to help in bridging the big gap between demand and supply of natural gas.

It will also make coal mining safer since the absence of methane would reduce chances of fire accidents in coal mines.

This article further discusses the following details:

  • Government’s policy
  • Coal liquefaction pilot project
  • Coal gasification project of Singareni Collieries Company Ltd.
  • Coal gasification project of Reliance
  • Offer of blocks under CBM-III
  • Coal bed methane project of BP

COAL FOR INDIA’S ENERGY NEEDS

India’s dependence on imported energy has increased from a level of 18 per cent of the total Primary Commercial Energy Supply (TPCES) in 1991 to 30 per cent in 2003.

However, the Draft Integrated Energy Policy by Planning Commission is hopeful that India may be able to exploit by 2030-31 its hydel potential to the tune of 1,50,000 MW, nuclear power to the extent of 59,000 MW and additional power through wind source to the tune of 14,000 MW.

The share of coal is expected to decline from 85 per cent to 78 per cent, that of gas based energy is set to increase from 20 per cent in 2003-04 to 30 per cent in 2031-32.

Energy experts anticipate that long-term demand projection of coal could become a complex issue owing to rapid changes in the relative availability and price in the fuel sector, coupled with technical innovations and new policies in the end-use sectors.

CHALLENGES IN THE FIELD OF OIL AND GAS

Oil and gas currently meet 60 percent of world energy needs. The global transport system relies largely on petroleum products, while gas plays a key role in electricity generation and heat provision.

Even allowing for significant improvement in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies and potential construction of a new generation of nuclear power stations, the world will be dependent on oil and gas for several decades.

But this situation would pose problems. The global gas production has nearly peaked.

PROGRESS OF SEAWATER DESALINATION PROJECTS IN CALIFORNIA, USA

In November 2002, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) voted for Proposition 50, which authorised the DWR to administer a US $50 million desalination grant programmed to help water utilities in their pursuit of brackish and seawater desalination.

The first round began in 2005 when DWR awarded US $24.75 million to 24 projects. The second round, in June 2006, provided another US $21.5 million to 23 projects. Just over half (52%) the 2006 grant was dedicated to seawater desalination projects.

The grants will provide funding for feasibility studies, applied research, development and pilot tests, and demonstration and full scale desalination projects. The funded projects are targeted for completion by 2009 and are expected to provide practical solutions to key environmental, energy and cost challenges that confront desalination.

The initiative is expected to yield over 20 new projects that could provide up to 10% of the total water demand along the coast by 2020 and some two million cubic metres of new drinking water by 2030.

At present, the two largest and most advanced seawater desalination projects in Southern California are the 200,000 m3 per day plants planned for Carlsbad and Huntington Beach respectively.

Both projects are public private partnerships between Poseidon Resource and local utilities and municipalities. Each is co-located with large coastal power plants that use seawater for once-through cooling.

The Carlsbad project is unique; it would be one of the few plants worldwide that would become the sole source of supply for an entire city. Most desalination plants supplement traditional water supplies. Desalination cost reduction

This article further discusses the following details:

  • Seawater desalination costs
  • Desalination cost reduction
  • Energy use
  • Seawater intakes
  • Concentrate management
  • Seawater desalination projects in Northern California
OTHER ARTICLES
  • Industrial Sickness in India
  • Solar Powered Boat
  • Safety and Accident page
  • Anti Dumping page
  • Production of Dow Chemical Company
  • Update on Nano Technology
  • US Efforts to build a safer rail tank car
  • News Round up-International/India
  • Uranium Scenario
  • An Unlikely Source of Oil
  • Update on Biofuel
  • China News
  • Technology Development-International/India
  • A Radical Route to Plastics
  • Pharma page- International/India
  • Update on Biotechnology
  • Herbal Page
  • Pesticide Page
  • Energy Page-International/India
  • Update on Carbon Trading
  • New Way to Extract Energy from Waves
  • Pyrolysis Process to Extract Energy from Landfill
  • Hoarding Carbon Credit
  • Environmental Page-International
  • Reducing Pollution Through Oxidation Pilot Studies in China
  • Wind Power Technology in China
  • Clean Development Mechanism in Coal Mines in China
  • Moves for Ban on Mercury
  • Figures at a glance on Global Chemical Industry
  • New Projects International
  • Agro chemical Page-International/India
  • Business Opportunities
  • Price Details-International
  • Directory of Chemical Industries in China-Manufacturers, Trading Houses and Promotional Organisations- Part XXXXIV
  • Chemicals Imported at Chennai Port During the Month of September 2006 
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