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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Oct 2004

FORMALDEHYDE|RICE HULL ASH|ETHANOL BLENDED FUEL|PALM OIL
Highlights of Some of the Articles

INDIAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
FOCUS ON FORMALDEHYDE
RICE HULL ASH - AS FILTER AID
PALM OIL ISSUES
ETHANOL BLENDED FUEL
OTHER STORIES
OTHER ARTICLES

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

Contributed by Mr.S.Subramanyam, Former President of Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association (ICMA) and presently Advisor, Thirumalai Chemicals Ltd, TamilNadu, India.

MARKET SIZE
Indian Chemical Industry (size : US$ 28 billion) 
Constitutes 6.7% of India’s GDP

PHARMA SECTOR GOING STRONG

Globally, the output of Indian pharmaceutical industry ranks 4th in terms of volume and 13th in terms of value.

In FY02, the domestic Indian pharma market was valued at $4.5bn, representing 1.6% of the global market, and is growing at an annual rate of 9%.

The industry produces about 60,000 finished medicines and roughly 400 bulk drugs, which are used in formulations.

In FY03, the Indian pharma market is estimated to have exported drug worth Rs 110bn.

In the past five years, the pharma exports grew by 30% per annum.

Exports

US $ million

2001-02

2002-03

% Growth

India's Total Exports

43826

52719

20%

Inorganic Chemicals

263

402

53%

Organic chemicals

1609

2105

31%

Intermediates for Pharma & Pharma Products

1055

1400

33%

Plastics & Articles

773

1002

30%

* Chemical exports comprising of about 10% of total Indian Exports & 17% of total chemical output.

FOCUS ON FORMALDEHYDE

This article is contributed by Mr.P.K.N.Panicker, President, Chemical Industries Association and Former President, Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a critical ingredient in the production of hundreds of items that improve the quality of every day life.

It was accidentally produced by Alexander Mikhilovich Butlerov in 1859 and subsequently by A.W.Hofmann in 1868.

Because of its unique and versatile nature, formaldehyde cannot be easily replaced in many consumer and industrial products. All commercial formaldehyde is produced from methanol and is usually marketed as a water solution of 37% formaldehyde. Because of this, formaldehyde business is characterized by users facilities located near production facilities.

Formaldehyde manufacture started in USA in 1901 when it mainly was used as a disinfectant and embalming agent. Its demand started growing with the discovery and use of synthetic resins initiated by the discoveries of Dr.Leo H Baekeland in 1909.

As per available statistics, the production in USA in 1914 was around 4200 tonnes today. It is now reported to be around 3.8 million tonnes.

This article also discusses the following aspects in detailed manner:

  • Commercial formaldehyde
  • Uses in every day life
  • Newer Applications
  • Manufacture
  • Recent Development
  • Commercial Production
  • Silver Process
  • Oxide Process
  • Hazards
  • Safe Handling
  • Safety and health concerns
  • Regulation
  • Irritation studies
  • Asthma studies
  • Reproduction/children’s development studies
  • Cancer studies
  • Sources of Emission
  • Home environment
  • Atmosphere
  • Point sources
  • Threshold limit
  • Global Production
  • Global demand
  • Pattern of demand
  • Indian Production
  • Technology licensors
  • Economics
  • Formaldehyde Trade Group launched 

EQUIPMENT LAYOUT FIRE EXPLOSION AND TOXICITY INDEX (FETI): FORMALDEHYDE PLANT

Contributed by Mr.K.Govindarajan, Petchem (E) Consultants, Chennai, India

This article contains the Risk Analysis Report for Formaldehyde plant, detailed process involved, scope of risk analysis, Fire, Explosion and Toxicity Index, etc.

APPLICATIONS OF FORMALDEHYDE IN PHENOLIC RESINS

Contributed by Mr.Srinath Chennakesavan, Chief Executive Officer, Esterkote (P) Ltd., Chennai, India

This article discusses the application of Formaldehyde (HCHO) in the production of synthetic resins

POLYACETAL FORMALDEHYDE DERIVATIVES

Contributed by Dr.D.M.Mohunta.

Dr.D.M.Mohunta is a Chemical Engineering Consultant with more than 4 decades experience in the chemical industry, He is member of working groups of Government of India on certain chemical industries, IDBI Screening committee, Task force on safety in hazardous chemical industries in Tamil Nadu, alcohol based industries etc.

This article discusses the application potentials, technology developments relating to polyacetal and its formaldehyde derivatives, details of international manufacturers and global capacity level, etc.

RICE HULL ASH - AS FILTER AID

Filter aids continue to play an important role in the beer brewing process.

The majority of commercial filter aids in use are either diatomite-or perlite based.

However, rice hull ash, a by-product from the incineration of rice hulls, has been shown to be an effective filter aid in the filtration of sugar liquors.

A research team from the Cuban Research Institute of Sugar Cane Derivatives (ICIDCA) has gone on to investigate its ability to clarify beer. The findings of their study are provided in this article.

PALM OIL ISSUES

The market in the growing non food segment for palm oil and palm oil derivatives such as in toilet and laundry soaps, detergent and shampoo is growing.

With the current trend of consumers preferring natural and biodegradable –products, palm based oleochemical applications could take advantage of the expanding Indian market.

This article also describes the following details:

  • Indian imports
  • Growth trends
  • Impact of Malaysian Palm oil in India
  • Yields in Malaysia
  • Malaysia Palmoil – Area and Production
  • Palm oil carotenoid norms
  • Value addition
  • Row over carotenoid level in palm oil
ETHANOL BLENDED FUEL

The efforts of Petroleum companies in India to produce ethanol from sugar factories and distilleries seems to have hit a roadblock with the later insisting on more than 35% hike in the price of ethanol about last year’s level of RS.17.50 per litre.

Oil companies, do not find much value in procuring ethanol despite the mounting costs of crude. The ethanol programme is simply too small to make a dent in their expenses and only represents a lot of paper work.

OTHER STORIES

CARBON DISULPHIDE – Declining Global Demand Trends

This article discusses the following aspects of the global Carbon disulphide industry:

  • Characteristics and specification
  • Product application
  • Major global producers
  • Indian producers
  • New Project
  • Process employed
  • Global scenario
  • Historical trends
  • Recent trends
  • Demand trends for carbondisulphide
  • Factors influencing the position for a new industry and Recommendations

OZONE DEPELETING HALON PHASED OUT IN INDIA

Halons have been traditionally used as fire extinguishing agents in electronic installations, aircraft, military vehicles, ships, submarines and oil platforms.

However, the ozone depleting properties of halon created global alarm in the 70s and 80s leading to global action in the form of Montreal Protocol in 1987, to limit the production and consumption of these chemical.

OTHER ARTICLES
  • Government Notification Page
  • Update on Nano Technology
  • Anti Dumping Page
  • Certification issues
  • Design, Development and Testing of Pollution Free Cotton Seed Delinting Plant
  • Herbal Page
  • Safety data – Benomyl (Fungicide)
  • Agro chemical page – International/India
  • Pesticide Page - International/India
  • Safety and Accident Page
  • New Round Up-India
  • Technology development- International/India
  • Pharma page - International/India
  • Drug Cos. Inflating prices upto 1648% - Study Report
  • Globalisation drives Indian Cos to invest abroad – UN Report
  • Drug Discovery Process
  • Price Details - International/India
  • It Takes 89 Days to set up business in India – World Bank Report
  • Environmental Page – International/India
  • Tender
  • Patent page
  • Energy Page- International/India
  • Hydrogen Energy Projects
  • International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code Part XXV
  • List of Foreign Direct Investment/Collaboration Proposals Approved by Government of India During the Month of May 2004
  • Chemicals Imported at Chennai Port During the Month of April 2004
  • Chemicals Exported at Chennai Port During the Month of July 2004 
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