Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Jan 2004
Carbon Disulphide|Ammonium Bicorbonate
TALK OF THE MONTH
CARBON DISULPHIDE & ITS DERIVATIVES– PRODUCT PROFILE
SCIENTISTS CONFIRM HUMAN ACTIVITIES ARE ALTERING CLIMATE
POLLUTER PAYS PRINCIPLE
A few weeks back Canada 's Supreme Court has rejected an appeal from Imperial Oil (Edmonton , AB), seeking to overturn a ruling that required it to pay for cleanup of a fuel depot the company had operated at Levis , PQ .
The company's attorneys argued that the cleanup order issued by Quebec Government was a conflict of interest because it would save the provincial government from having to pay money in another lawsuit. Residents living near the contaminated site were in the process of suing the government to recoup money lost through diminished property value.
The Supreme Court rejected the argument. "The Government has the responsibility of protecting the public interest in the environment and make its decisions in consideration of that interest," the court ruled.
The Canadian Chemical Producers' Association (CCPA) says that their preliminary review of the ruling indicates that it will not have broad influence on the country's site remediation lawsuits. The ruling addresses a specific charge of conflict or interest and therefore applies to a more narrow set of circumstances.
Canada does not have a programme similar to Superfund in the US .
Will the above judgment be a trend setter?
The above judgment of Canadian Supreme Court may become a trend setter and should be taken note of by the judiciary as well as chemical industries .
The most serious problem confronted by the chemical industries is, ofcourse the need to produce of products without harming the environment. While various steps have been initiated by chemical industries all over the world in ensuring environmental cleanliness while producing goods,ultimately the permission to operate chemical industries can only be a compromise decision.
In future, as environmental requirements would become a more crucial subject, chemical industries are likely to face more difficult conditions.
However until recently, chemical industries have only been ordered to close down the operation due to environmental violation but have not been asked to compensate the public and society for whatever harm that its operation could have caused to the environmental scenario.
The judgement of Canadian Supreme Court brings out a new dimension, where the polluters have been asked to pay and compensate for harm that have been created.
In many cases, this could well be beyond capacity of the chemical industries to pay. Such conditions may possibly deter more and more players from venturing into chemical industries in future.
BILLION DOLLAR BUSINESS
Every two years, Indonesia loses about four million hectares of forest, an area roughly the size of Switzerland, to rapacious logging. Skies in Northern China glow orange due to sand storms that cross the Pacific and lay dust on the Western US. In Hong Kong, raw sewage bobs in its pearl blue harbour.
According to one senior United Nations environmental official, from inner Mongolia to the Indian subcontinent and tropical Southeast Asia, the region's ecology and environment is deteriorating even as its factories and economies boom.
Governments are rolling out unprecedented initiatives to tackle Asian pollution. There are policy initiatives that have been taken and laws enacted and so on, but the problem is the actual implementation.
Six of the world's 15 most polluted cities are in Asia and the region generates a third of the world's carbon dioxide emissions. In Asia 's developing regions, around 785 million people lack regular access to safe water, UN statistics show.
But there are pockets of improvement. The air quality which has been notoriously polluted Bangkok , Dhaka , New Delhi and several Chinese cities is healthier now, after most of Asia, except for Indonesia, phased out lead from gasoline.
Bangladesh, which is spending $30 million over two years to bring natural gas to 100 petrol stations, is replacing high polluting two stroke engines in its rickshaw taxis in the capital Dhaka with cleaner burning natural gas power.
Thailand 's "tuk tuk" taxis now run on liquefied petroleum gas, while buses and taxis in New Delhi and Mumbai are phasing out diesel and running instead on compressed natural gas. This could be very much the story of the future.
Fixing Asia 's environmental mess - from stifling sandstroms and rapid soil erosion in China to treating sewage in Indian rivers and Southeast Asian air pollution - is turning into a billion dollar business.
US Department of Commerce is sending an "Environmental Technologies Trade Mission" to Malaysia , Thailand and Vietnam next March to scout for opportunities for US companies, citing "significant" potential for US business.
It estimates that Malaysia 's "environmental market" is worth around $800 million, mostly for safe water supply and sewage treatment and says that Thailand needs to spend around $1.2 to $1.5 billion on clean water and sanitation by 2020.
Clear Liquid and Colourless
Volatile and flammable
Mild ethereal odour. However, minor impurities impart a disagreeable odour.
Important Derivatives of Carbon disulphide
Mancozeb, Maneb, Thiram (Tetra Methyl Thiram disulphide) (TMTD), Ziram (Zinc Dimethyl Dithio Carbomate) (ZDDC), Mercapto, Benzimedazole (MBI), Xanthate Chemicals
Indian Manufacturers of Carbondisulphide
Indian Rayon and Industries Ltd., Gujarat
Century Rayon, Maharashtra
Grasim Industries Ltd., Madhya Pradesh
NRC Ltd., Maharashtra
Kesoram Rayon, Calcutta
Baroda Rayon Corporation Ltd., Gujarat
Srivaari Chemicals (P) Ltd., Andhra Pradesh
Two important units namely SIV Industries, TamilNadu and Gwalior Rayons, Kerala have recently stopped production.
Indian Demand for Carbon disulphide Around 95000 tonnes per annum
Of this, around 80000 tonnes per annum of Carbon disulphide is consumed by Viscose Rayon Industry and the requirement for Viscose Rayon Industry is largely met by captive production by the Viscose Rayon units.
Broad outline of Manufacturing Process
- Charcoal Sulphur Process
- Retort Process
- Electric Furnace Process
- Hydrocarbon Sulphur Process
AMMONIUM BICARBONATE – INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
This article discusses the following aspects:
- Specification of Food Grade
- Product Application
- Substitution possibilities
- Indian Manufacturers
- Assessment of Demand
- Broad outline of Manufacturing process
- Global Scenario
- SWOT Analysis
FREE FLOW REFINED, EDIBLE IODISED SALT – INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
In this article, following aspects are discussed in detailed manner :
- Product characteristics
- Indian Demand supply scenario for iodised salt
- Installed capacity/production trends of iodised salt
- Regionwise capacity details
- Present level of iodised salt production
- Iodised salt production by Refineries
- Major players in branded salt
- Broad details of salt processing plant
- Government policies and procedures
Two top US climate scientists said that there is no longer any doubt that human activities are changing the Earth's atmosphere and its climate and that children and grandchildren will inherit the consequences.
In a paper published in the latest issue of the journal Science, Thomas R.Karl and Kevin E. Trenberth say that researchers remain uncertain about the precise course of climate change from here. That change has already "exceeded the bounds of natural variability. We are entering the unknown."
Karl is director of the National Climate Data Centre in Asheville . N C Trenberth heads or climate analysis section of the National Centre for Atmospheric Research in Boulder , Colo.
The paper's conclusions are likely to encourage environmentalists and others arguing for legislation leading to mandatory caps or reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.
Life on Earth is dependent on the atmosphere's greenhouse effect, which traps solar heat and keeps the planet habitable. The mechanism is regulated mostly by the chemical composition of the atmosphere as well as by cloud, snow and ice cover, volcanic eruptions and other factors.
Over the past 50 years, the authors say, emissions of greenhouse gases -- chiefly carbon dioxide released by the combustion of fossil fuels -- have altered atmospheric chemistry . And because these gases remain in the atmosphere for decades or centuries the effects have been cumulative and will be long lasting. "The rate of change can be slowed, but it is unlikely to be stopped in the 21st century."
The emission of greenhouse gases in the United States has increased between 0.5 percent and 1 percent per year in recent decades, studies have found.
Already it is estimated that the Earth's climate has exceeded the bounds of natural variability and this has been the case since about 1980.
In the absence of efforts to slow the accumulation of carbon dioxide and other green house gases in the atmosphere, scientists have predicted that average global temperatures are likely to rise roughly by 3 to 7 degress Fahrenheit by the end of the century. The projected change is far faster than any natural process and "certainly those prevailing over the past 10,000 years," the study says.
"A combination of ocean temperature increases and ice sheet melting could systematically inundate the world's coasts by raising sea level for centuries," the scientists say.
Understanding of the Earth's climate system is also complicated by uncertainties about "feedback" mechanisms. The biggest unknown is how clouds fit into the picture. Rising temperatures and increased evaporation are likely to create great cloud cover. More clouds can then reflect more solar energy back into space, cooling the surface. But by how much?
Efforts to construct computer models of the planet's complex climate system, the authors say, have been frustrated by limited knowledge, inadequate or incomplete measurements of past and present conditions and by limited computer power.
"Progress here is dependent not only on overcoming scientific and technical issues," they say, "but also major institutional and international obstacles related to the free flow of climate related data and information."
Ginger, Aale, Adaraka, Inji
Ginger the perennial herb originated in India and was introduced in China at a very early date. The harvesting of ginger differs according to its end use, which may be as fresh green type for flavouring, for preserves or as a dried spice. The efficacy of ginger varies with the type or variety, region, agroclimatic conditions of cultivation area, methods of curing, drying and packaging.
This article also discusses the following aspects.
Ginger Cure for Arthritis
Demand and price trends
Medicinal Mushrooms – For Cancer Prevention
Out of an estimated 38000 species of mushrooms, most provide a wealth of protein, fiber, B Vitamins and vitamin C, as well as Calcium and other minerals.
The medicinal mushrooms like Reishi, Maitake, Shiitake and Monkey Head Mushroom have been shown to boost heart health; lower the risk of cancer; promote immune function; ward off viruses, bacteria and fungi; reduce inflammation; combat allergies; help balance blood sugar levels; and support the body's detoxification mechanisms.
This article describes the recent developments in the applications of mushrooms for cancer prevention.
SULPHUR POLYMER – A PROFILE
Sulphur polymer is a stabiliser that is generally used in the production of Sulphur concrete.
Sulphur concrete (SC) is a thermoplastic, structural building material that offers exceptional chemical resistant properties, making it ideal for use in construction in fertiliser, metal refining and other industries, where portland cement concrete is subject to attack.
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL: CAPROIC ACID
This article discusses the application aspects and process technology as well as Indian import/export trends for Caproic acid.
GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION PAGE: Import manifest norms relaxed
In a bid to carry forward the administrative reforms, the Revenue Department of Government of India has considerably relaxed the norms for filing import manifest. Henceforth, the import manifest will have to be filed electronically at the Customs stations where the electronic data interchange system is in operation.
The imprest general manifest is a declaration of cargo which is required to be filed by carriers, vessels as well as aircraft, for unloading goods at Customs stations.
As per the revised norms, various authorities like multi modal operators, break bulk agents, consolidators, freight forwarders etc, dealing with the delivery of imported goods can file import manifest for a vessel or an aircraft for the purpose of section 30 of the Customs Act of 1962. However, the persons responsible for filing the import imprest, both at master level and house level, will be required to register themselves with the Customs in advance. They will have to apply for registration with the jurisdictional commissioner of Customs.
It has been further clarified that in case the "any other person" specified under section 30 is not registered, then the responsibility of filing the house level details will rest with the person in charge of the vessel or aircraft or their agent. The department has also asked shipping lines and airlines to ensure that persons authorised to issue delivery orders in respect goods carried by them are duly registered with the local Customs. In case of failure to file the imprest general manifest in advance, sources said action would be taken as per the provision of section 30 (1) of the Customs Act.
It has been further stipulated that in the case of vessels where the voyage from the last port of call exceeds four days, the import manifest will have to be filed at least 48 hours before the entry inwards of such vessels. In any other case the manifest should be filed at least 10 hours before the entry inward of vessels.
In case of long haul flights, the import manifest will have to be filed within two hours before the arrival of the aircraft and for short haul flights, before the arrival of the aircraft.
- Update on Nano Technology
- Update on e-Chemical Business
- Focus on Electronic Chemicals
- Certification Issues
- Anti Dumping Page – India/International
- Safety and Accident Page
- Scientists confirm Human Activities are altering climate
- Technology for Removal of Dioxins From Fuel Gases
- Herbal Page
- Potential of Ayurvedic Drugs-Parliamentary Committee Report
- Process flow – Furfuryl Alcohol
- Safety Data – Polyvinyl formal
- Global Consultants Report – Solvent Scenario
- Pesticide News
- News Round up-International/India
- Technology Developments-International/India
- Agrochemical page – India
- Pharma Page – International/India
- Environmental Page - International/India
- Cost of developing a new drug increases
- Energy Page
- Price details
- Figures at a glance
- Directory of Chemical Industries in China-Manufacturers, Trading Houses and Promotional Organisations – Part XII
- Nandini Internet Index
- Job Seeker;s Page
- International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code – Part XV
- Chemicals Imported at Chennai Port During the Month of July 2003
- Book Review
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