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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Jul 2013


Highlights of Some of the Articles
SO CALLED TRADE WAR BETWEEN CHINA AND WESTERN COUNTRIES Swaminathan Venkataraman Director, Nandini Consultancy (S) Pte.Ltd.Singapore E mail :- In recent times, the media in the western countries have been frequently discussing about the so called trade war between China and a few other countries, particularly USA and Europe. It is often argued that such a trade war has become inevitable due to rapid capacity build up in China in several sectors such as solar panels, several bulk and speciality chemicals, which has displaced European and US manufacturers from global markets and has resulted in China rapidly increasing its market share for its products around the world. As capacity build up in China has considerably exceeded the requirement in domestic market , China has to necessarily find markets in other countries, which appear to have created fear and apprehension amongst companies, particularly in Europe, USA and Middle East. In practical terms, the manufacturing capacity creation in Europe and USA particularly in bulk chemicals and commodity products have been quiet low in recent years, though the USA is now trying to gain lost ground by rapid building of new projects, in the wake of the shale gas availability and improved competitiveness. In the last decade, while capacity build up in China have been going on at great pace, this has not been so in western countries and USA to the same extent .On the other hand, multi national companies based in Europe and USA have themselves been investing in China in a huge way, attracted by the potential market opportunities in China and in the process, contributing to capacity build up in China. The reality is that both the western companies and Chinese companies have to find newer markets in the Asia, Africa and Latin American countries, as demand growth has been weak for several years in Europe and USA. Inter dependence While the so called trade war is much talked about, the fact is that there is growing inter dependence between China and USA and the European countries and this has become more pronounced due to massive investment in China by the multi national companies, which in turn have made China to look for market in other countries including Europe and USA . In such circumstances, it is difficult to visualize the trend of the so called trade war in the coming years further intensifying and one can say that such trade war is neither in the interest of China nor of western countries, as all these countries have to now swim together. Any fall in growth in China is bound to affect the growth in western countries, as China is now the most significant growth market in several key industries such as automobiles, luxury goods, industrial machinery where western companies are globally competitive. In the last several years, the future plans of multi national companies have been made, keeping in view the prospects and potential opportunities available in China. China has offered the multi national companies reasonably good working conditions and work culture and opportunities for investment with excellent co operation provided by the universities and research institutions etc. in China. While China has certainly gained by the massive investments of multinational companies, both in terms of economic growth and technology development, the fact is that that this has not been without return for the multi national companies. One should not miss the fact that just as multi national companies have invested in China , a few of the large Chinese companies have been foraying in Middle East and USA with investment plans. It is also the fact that native Chinese chemical industries have absorbed the technologies offered to them by multi national companies with great efficiency. Capability of the Chinese engineers and scientists have also been well recognized by the multi national companies , as is evident from several global players such as DuPont and Dow establishing large R&D centres in China , in which significant percentage of scientists employed are Chinese. Solar industry In recent times, the anti dumping duty initiated by a few companies in Europe and USA against the import of polycrystalline silicon and solar panel from China have caused considerable heart burn amongst producers in China. The fact is while China has been exporting solar panels , it has also been importing from USA and Europe. While it is true that there have been over capacity for the production of polycrystalline silicon and solar panel in several countries, it is incorrect to blame Chinese solar industries alone for this scenario. Capacities have been built all over the world anticipating huge increase in demand from solar power installations in the coming years. This has not happened, mainly due to the slow down and recession in European economy and as solar power electricity prices have not come down fast enough to be competitive with alternate sources such as gas. The real situation is that the Chinese solar industries have been the worst affected by such trends and a large number of them have been forced to close down the operations and rest of them operating at very low capacity levels. Rare Earths Another issue that has caused trade friction is China’s decision to restrict the export of rare earths , for which China has been blamed. For the last several years, China has been supplying over 90% of the global requirements of rare earths, while number of countries including USA have been buying rare earths and at the same time conserving their resources. The concern of China about safeguarding its rare earths reserves is only appropriate,which made China restrict its exports. If other countries have not evolved alternate supply strategies to meet their rare earth requirements and have been caught unaware by the decision of China to restrict its exports, China cannot be blamed for such a situation. Counter productive Time will prove that the so called trade war which is now much discussed in the media in western countries, will prove to be counter productive, particularly for the multi national companies before long. Having placed their faith in China and investing their resources and technology in China, the multi national companies need to understand the compulsions of China better and work out a mutually beneficial and pragmatic trade relationship that can be sustained in the long run. US represents the largest overseas market for China , just as China represents a large and potential market for the multi national companies based in Europe and USA. Where is the need for conflict ?
Swaminathan Venkataraman Director, Nandini Consultancy (S) Pte.Ltd. Singapore Email;- Mr.Chidambaram’s five point action plan to boost the confidence in the market only highlights his concern about the present economic crisis in the country now well reflected by fall in rupee and his anxiety to find a quick solution . It is not surprising that stock market has failed to respond to Mr.Chidambaram’s action plan The economic crisis in the country is a serious issue and it cannot be solved by a stroke of pen by the Governor of Reserve Bank of India or the think tank of the government breaking their heads on rising or lowering the taxes. The finance minister’s appeal to the people not to import gold is a pathetic sign of his helplessness. People import gold because they lack confidence in the ability of the government to control inflation and people think that possession of gold is one sure way of protecting their real assets. The issue is that the current account deficit is high due to surging imports of energy sources such as crude oil, natural gas and coal and that of several raw materials and bulk chemicals due to lack of adequate supply from indigenous sources. The current account deficit can be firmly bridged only by boosting the supply of products and materials,by building capacities and increasing production. This is not happening. The government has not been able to create an appropriate climate for capacity building in the manufacturing sector in a big way, during the last few years. Of course, the present crisis reflected by the falling rupee has been building over a period of time and Mr.Chidambaram who has taken over the finance ministry only recently, cannot be held entirely responsible for this dismal scenario. The former Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee who held the finance portfolio for several years and the Prime Minister who is a reputed economist should largely accept the blame. They have failed to ensure that capacity build up and production would be stepped up which alone would give stability for the economy and would help in sustaining the growth. The basic issue is that India has now become one of the biggest importers of energy sources such as crude oil, coal and natural gas, whose production has been virtually stagnant for the last several years. With the international price of these energy sources fluctuating , Indian economy has become highly vulnerable and increased import due to lack of massive production growth is leading to sharp increase in current account deficit. What is disturbing is government’s lack of action plans to reduce the dependence on import of petroleum feed stock, knowing clearly well that there is no likelihood of Indian production of the petroleum feed stock increasing in any significant measure in the foreseeable future. Government of India has to find an appropriate fuel to meet the nation’s energy needs, which should become the central theme of the finance minister’s action plans. Obvious and appropriate fuel The obvious and appropriate fuel for India are the bio fuels based on jatropha and algae. While tall talks were made earlier about developing jatropha biofuel industry, all the efforts have come to nothing and the country appears to have wasted precious years. Algae is an appropriate energy source for India. Just like jatropha, Indian climatic conditions and long coastal belt are ideal for cultivation of algae in a massive way. The oil content in algae is around 50% and large cultivation of algae can contribute to big production of algae bio fuel,apart from several other ecologically friendly benefits that it would provide and the possibilities of co producing ethanol from algae bio mass. Ethanol can be a strong and important bio fuel. For the last six or seven years, several developed countries and multi national companies have invested millions of dollars in carrying out research and development activities relating to production of algae bio fuel at optimum standards. As a matter of fact, production of algae bio fuel has already commenced in developed countries on trial basis and it is likely to be available in commercial quantity within the next two or three years. It is sad that India has missed the bus by not spending time and resources in conducting research and development work on algae bio fuel. What ever initiative that India has taken are in very preliminary stage and in practical terms, the work that has been carried out is at negligible level. It is extremely surprising that the finance Minister ( the earlier one and the present one) and the Prime Minister are not thinking on these lines to develop appropriate fuel in India to meet India’s energy needs and reduce the import dependence. It cannot be said that they are unaware of this, as a few seminars have been conducted on algae bio fuel , which were addressed by knowledgeable scientists and technologists on algae bio fuel and the views and recommendations have been forwarded to the government. The finance minister should find a meaningful and long term solution for the current account deficit and this cannot be the easy way of attracting FDI which can come and go. Finance Minister is trying to do fire fighting and seeking solutions for the next few months and not for next few years. To this extent, his five point action plan amounts to planning in vacuum.
Nandini Consultancy Centre, a firm of chemical engineers and chemical business consultants based at Chennai and Singapore ( conducted an investigative study on the state of engineering education in Tamil Nadu in India. The study reveals the harm that have been done to the cause of engineering education by unchecked growth in number of engineering colleges, which have resulted in huge dilution in standards and causing enormous unemployment / under employment amongst passed out engineers. Recommendations of the investigative study: 1. A survey must be carried out immediately by Government of Tamil Nadu to find out how many fresh graduate and diploma level engineers are required in Tamil Nadu every year, based on job opportunities 2. The number of seats in engineering colleges should be drastically reduced , based on the job potentials for fresh engineers. 3. Engineering colleges should introduce job oriented specialised courses , so that fresh engineers passing out will become readily employable. For example, in civil engineering, specialised courses in construction of high rise buildings or dams or highway roads or drainage system etc. can be introduced. Similar steps should be taken with regard to other branches of engineering also. 4. Minimum marks required for admission of students in engineering colleges should be raised atleast to 60% , so that only the above average students would get into engineering colleges. This is particularly necessary, since the engineering studies require above average caliber. 5. The duration of engineering course at graduate level should be increased to five years from the present four years, to ensure that fresh engineers will be better employable. In the earlier days, it was only five year degree level engineering course. This would ensure that the students will get adequate time for learning , particularly considering the ever increasing developments in the engineering subjects all over the world and the complex nature of the engineering education. 6. The average competence level of teachers in engineering colleges have not been upto standards, as too many colleges have come up in short time. This aspect has to be duly considered by the government , while giving permission for number of seats in engineering colleges. For full text of the study,please contact Editor, Nandini Voice For The Deprived, Chennai-90 Phone No.044-24916037,
Fumed silica is a collection of very-fine non-porous particles . Fumed silica is used as a reinforcing, thickening, abrasive, thixotropic, suspending or anti-caking agent. It is used in a wide-range of end-market applications in the automotive, construction, microelectronics and consumer products industries. Fumed silica improves the performance of adhesives, sealants, cosmetics, inks, toners, silicone rubber, coatings, polishing slurries and pharmaceuticals. Appearance Fine white powder Synonyms Dioxosilane CAS No. 7631-86-9 Molecular formula SiO2 Odour Odourless pH 4 Solubility Insoluble in water Following details are discussed in this article:
  • Application
  • Grade
  • Indian Import
  • Indian producer
  • Substitution possibilities
  • Indian demand for Fumed silica
  • Growth rate in demand:
  • Global scenario
  • Scenario in China
  • Production process outline
  • Prognosis
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) forms tough, clean films that have high tensile strength and abrasion resistance.It is highly resistant to solvents, oils and grease. Polyvinyl alcohol is one of the few high molecular weight commercial polymers. Appearance Commercially available in granular or powder form CAS No. 9002-89-5 Synonyms PVA, Polyvinol, Ethenol homopolymer Molecular Formula [ -CH2CHOH- ]n Odour Mild odour Solubility Moderately soluble Specific gravity 1.19 to 1.31 pH Aqueous solution is neutral or slightly acidic Stability Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage Biodegradability PVA is a biodegradable, water-soluble synthetic polymer. The degradation products are water and carbon dioxide. Following details are discussed in this article
  • Application
  • Grades
  • Indian Import
  • Indian manufacturers
  • Demand supply scenario
  • Indian demand
  • Pattern of demand
  • Global demand supply scenario
  • Important producers
  • Scenario in China
  • Global demand
  • Pattern of sectorwise global demand
  • Process Outline
  • Prognosis
Large capacity refineries and petrochemical complexes are now being built in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kuwait. These countries, which are part of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel, are no longer content with playing the role of the world crude exporter. Raising population in their own countries and high per capita income has resulted in increasing domestic consumption of fuels for transportation and power generation. This move may affect other Asian countries, including India, who refine the crude to diesel or other fuels and ship them back to the West Asian countries. OPEC’s oil reserves statistics Crude oil reserves in West Asia amount to 66 per cent of the global OPEC reserves. The list of OPEC countries includes Venezuela and some countries in North Africa, as well. Of the West Asian countries, Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest holder of crude oil reserves, and the world’s second largest crude oil producer behind Russia. The Kingdom produced 9.3 million bpd of crude in 2012, out of which 7.2 million bpd was exported. Following details are discussed in this article
  • Import of petroleum fuel by Saudi Arabia
  • New Project in Middle East region
  • Indian Scenario
Global shale resources are vast enough to cover more than a decade of oil consumption, according to the first-ever US assessment of reserves. The US Department of Energy estimated “technically recoverable” shale oil resources of 345bn barrels in 42 countries it surveyed, or 10 per cent of global crude supplies. The report said gas from shale formations increased world natural gas resources by 47 per cent to 22,882tn cu ft. Prospective shale areas including formations beneath large oilfields in the Middle East and the Caspian Sea region have been left out of the assessment. The pace of oil and gas production gains has been spectacular since horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, better known as “fracking”, were pioneered in US shale rock formations about ten years ago. Only the US and Canada are producing oil and natural gas from shale in commercial quantities. The above topic is further discussed in this article.
Almost 40 per cent of the global guar gum production is utilised for industrial purposes. Apart from its industrial usage, guar gum powder is used for preparing bakery items, dairy products such as ice creams, sherbets, cheese etc. Guar gum is widely used as a controlling agent in oil wells for facilitating easy drilling and preventing fluid loss. Due to this property, western oil companies’ requirements have been high for the past few years. Following details are discussed in this article
  • Production
  • Global importers
  • Indian exports
  • Price factors and demand drivers
  • Prognosis
World demand for silicones will rise 5.9 percent per year to $18.9 billion in 2017, according to a new study from The Freedonia Group Inc. Increases in silicone demand will happen due to the rising use of high value materials in emerging applications, particularly in the newly industrialized nations of the world, where the use of silicones is not yet mature. Advances will be limited, however, by the high cost of silicones relative to competitive materials in many applications. Elastomers and fluids were the two leading silicone product types in 2012, combining to account for nearly 85% of total demand. Following details are discussed in this article
  • Demand in Asia Pacific region
  • Demand in North America
  • World Silicone Demand
PLANT CLOSURE The article discusses the following closure plans
  • Lonza to close Ireland biocides manufacturing plant
  • Dow Corning to close Pune facility
  • Cabot to close carbon black facility in Malaysia
  • LyondellBasell to close HDPE unit in Germany
  • Bayer MaterialScience withdrawing from carbon nanotube
  • Teijin shuts Tennessee carbon fiber plant
  • Closure of Tuticorin Alkali Chemicals Tamil Nadu
NEWS ROUND UP - INTERNATIONAL The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Air Liquide biofuel deal
  • Georgia-Pacific to acquire Buckeye Technologies chemical cellulose firm
  • Termination of agreement for JV in Malaysia by BASF and Petronas
  • Aroma ingredients facility in Malaysia
  • Biobased nylon production facility in France
  • Adiponitrile plant in USA
  • Microcrystalline Cellulose
  • Anti reflective coatings plant in Netherlands
  • Biobased butadiene
  • Alpha-olefins plant at Freeport, TX
NEWS ROUND UP – INDIA SAIL’S INVESTMENT PLAN IN MINING PROJECTS Steel Authority of India (SAIL) through its raw material division (RMD) , is set to invest around Rs.70 crore in three iron ore mines in Jharkhand and Orissa, in order to make them environment friendly as well as to reclaim iron ore. The RMD, which has seven iron ore mines under it in Jharkhand and Orissa, is currently busy enhancing capacity of the mines to meet the company’s 39 million tonne requirement target by 2015-16, when it is targeting to produce 24 mtpa hot metal. The mines produce 18 mtpa iron ore, with Kiriburu Meghahatuburu, Gua,Chiria (all in Jharkhand) and Bolani Barsua, Kalta (all in Orissa) producing 4.25 mtpa, 4.30 mtpa, 2.40 mtpa, 1.50 mtpa, 4.10 mtpa, 2.01 mtpa and 1.30 mtpa irone ore, respectively. Post-expansion, that is by 2015-16, SAIL’s Kiriburu, Meghahatubur, Bolani, Barsua, Gua and Kalta mines are to produce 5.50 mtpa, 6.50 mtpa, 10 mtpa iron ore respectively. Following details are discussed in this article
  • Ore beneficiation plants
  • Water reclamation unit
  • Tailing dam slime beneficiation plant
  • Utilisation of iron ore waste
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS NEW BIOETHANOL TECHNOLOGY BY USING DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES Clariant has demonstrated the flexibility of its `sun liquid’ technology for manufacturing bioethanol by expanding its raw material base to different agricultural residues. Following the opening of Germany’s largest demonstration plant for manufacturing ethanol from agricultural residues in July 2012, the Swiss speciality chemicals company now has new findings, which show that corn stover, the most valuable raw material in North America and sugarcane bagasse, a cellulose-rich by-product of sugar and ethanol production in Latin America and Asia, can also be converted efficiently in the process. European wheat straw has primarily been used to date. The above topic is further discussed in this article. COLOURFAST PIGMENTS MADE FROM AMORPHOUS ARRAYS OF SILICON DIOXIDE AND CARBON BLACK In the journal Angewandte Chemie, Japanese scientists have now introduced a new type of colourfast, environmentally friendly pigment. These consist of submicrometer-sized silicon dioxide particles and carbon black and are simply sprayed on to the desire surface. The resulting colour is tough and does not fade. Organic dyes fade when exposed to UV light. Inorganic pigments do not fade but are often based on toxic heavy metals such as chromium. In contrast, Yukikazu Takeoka, Shinya Yoshioka and their co-workers at the Universities of Nagoya and Osaka have selected silicon dioxide (SiO2), the main component of sand, as the basis for their novel pigments The above topic is further discussed in this article. NANOTUBES TO INCREASE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY - EFFORTS OF IIT MADRAS Carbon nanotubes, by virtue of their high surface area and aspect ratio, are known for their excellent thermal conductivity — 3,000 W/mK. Even as scientists across the world are looking at ways of adding carbon nanotubes to fluids for use in heat exchangers to enhance heat transfer efficiency in steel plants and automobile coolants, IIT Madras has already tested the nanofluid’s superiority. In 2010, a joint patent was filed by Tata Steel and IIT Madras for the use of nanofluids to increase the thermal conductivity in industries such as steel and automobiles The technology developed by IIT Madras on nanotubes to increase thermal conductivity is further discussed in this article. GENOMATICA’S RENEWABLE BDO TECHNOLOGY BASF licensed Genomatica’s (San Diego) biobased 1,4-butanediol (BDO) process technology and aims to build a large-scale BDO manufacturing plant. BASF is a leading BDO manufacturer, with 535,000 metric tonne per year of capacity. The company intends to use the renewable BDO to tap markets, in which it can create additional value for customers, including the textile and automotive industries. BASF anticipates a plant capacity of about 50,000 metric tonne per year. Genomatica had a relationship with BASF for many years and recent milestones validating both the scalability of Genomatica’s process technology and the quality of its BDO were key elements to securing the licensing agreement. Genomatica’s technology development efforts for BDO is further discussed in this article. BIO ENERGY AND BIO PLASTICS PRODUCED BY NOVEL METHODS In the quest for alternative, renewable and eco-friendly fuels, scientists have developed a novel method to produce bio-energy and value-added products through wastewater treatment. Scientists at IICT, Hyderabad have adopted a bio-refinery approach and produced futuristic green fuels, bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. In the process, a value added product that came out — bio-plastics. With the aim of developing processes that could be adopted by Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs) and to achieve objectives of treating water, producing energy as well as value-added products, the scientists at IICT, Hyderabad have been operating a 50-litre capacity reactor to produce bio-hydrogen and bio-plastics under a project funded by the Ministry of Non-Renewable Energy. Technology developed by IICT, Hyderabad on bio energy and bioplastics are further discussed in this article. SUBSTITUTE FOR INDIUM TIN OXIDE TO SLASH THE COST OF SOLAR PANELS A new technique developed by Princeton University engineers for producing electricity-conducting plastics could dramatically lower the cost of manufacturing solar panels. By overcoming technical hurdles to producing plastics that are translucent, malleable and able to conduct electricity, the researchers have opened the door to broader use of the materials in a wide range of electrical devices. With mounting concerns about global warming and energy demand, plastics could represent a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO), an expensive conducting material currently used in solar panels, according to the researchers. A multi-institutional team reported on its new technique in a paper published online March 8 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The area of research, known as "organic electronics" because plastics are carbon-based like living creatures, holds promise for producing new types of electronic devices and new ways of manufacturing existing technologies, but has been hampered by the mysterious loss of conductivity associated with moldable plastics. A new technique developed by Princeton University engineers to lower the cost solar panels are discussed in ths article. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS The recent technology developments on the following products/events are discussed
  • Para xylene made from lignocellulosic biomass
  • Eco-friendly battery made of wood, tin
  • Nuclear Fuel Complex develops four alloys for strategic use
CHINA NEWS The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed
  • JV for Coal Chemical Business in Ningxia
  • Ethylene Project in Wuhan
  • Acrylonitrile JV Plant
  • Special Polyester Compound Project
  • Butyl rubber project
  • China set 2013 goals to eliminate outdated capacity
AGRO CHEMICAL PAGE NEW GENERATION INSECTICIDE - RYNAXYPYR The new generation pesticides being marketed by multinational companies in India include DuPont’s Rynaxypyr insect control molecule sold as ‘Coragen’ suspension concentrate and ‘Ferterra’ granular formulation. Such new generation pesticides are being based on completely new chemistry and novel modes of action and they require low level of spraying. Anthranilic diamides – the class of insecticide molecules to which Rynaxypyr or Bayer’s Flubendiamide (‘Fame’) belong – basically work on the ‘ryanodine receptors’ in insect pests, that regulate the release of stored calcium, critical for their muscle function. By binding to these receptors, the diamide compounds cause uncontrolled release and depletion of calcium, leading to muscle paralysis and ultimately the death of the insects. Chlorantraniliprole is a patented insecticide molecule of DuPont, known by the trade name Rynaxypyr. DuPont’s patent for Rynaxypyr was filed in August 2002, which confers it protection for at least another nine years. This is unlike an earlier molecule, Indoxacarb, which DuPont had launched in India in 2000 under the ‘Avaunt’ brand. This article discusses about the Rynaxypyr and cyazypyr insecticides The recent developments on the following products are updated
  • Ban on neonicotinoids
  • Next generation batteries from rice husk
  • Tapioca leaf based biopesticide
  • Rice bran oil gaining acceptance as cooking oil
  • Syngenta, DuPont sign fungicide tech agreement
  • US regulatory approval for sulfoxaflor (insecticide)
  • India cuts phosphate and potash subsidies
PHARMA PAGE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN INSULIN / ANTI DIABETIC DRUG Sanofi next gen insulin - Lantus Lantus, a synthetic insulin developed in the 1990s, is currently Sanofi's top-selling product. Last year, it grew almost 20 percent to generate 5 billion euros ($6.6 billion) in sales - but is set to lose patent protection in 2015. An improved version of Sanofi's blockbuster insulin Lantus is better than the older drug at controlling blood sugar lows at night, a common side effect in diabetics treated with insulin, according two late-stage tests published. Recent developments of following insulin /anti diabetic drugs also discussed in this article
  • Long acting insulin – Tresiba
  • New diabetes drug from GSK -Albiglutide
  • Suspension of pioglitazone
MEDICINAL PATENT POOL The United Nations-backed Medicinal Patent Pool (MPP) negotiates licences into the “pool’’ from patent holders and in turn licenses out to generic companies to make and sell HIV medicines to people, who need it and at affordable prices. After companies express interest on tapping into the patent pool, they are evaluated on different criteria, particularly quality. The medicinal patent pool works with generic manufacturers who have been approved by a stringent regulatory authority, such as the US FDA or the WHO pre-qualification programme. There is also a licence management process that helps to ensure that MPP licences result in impact, through quarterly reviews, for instance The patent pool involves voluntary participation of patent holders, such as large drug makers. Depending on the medical need, generic drug companies are allowed access to the patent of a particular medicine, on the payment of a royalty to the patent-holder. Following medical companies are also discussed in this article
  • Agreement by Shilpa Medicare
  • Licence from Gilead
Following pharmaceutical informations are discussed in this article
  • Radioactive lead can cure cancer
  • Govt. bans analgesic drug dextropropoxyphene
  • GVK bio licenses out database to US health regulator
ENERGY PAGE The recent developments in the energy sectors are discussed
  • Jindal Power projects in Arunachal Pradesh face problems
  • Solar Mission-II projects to have 75% local content
  • 1-MW geothermal pilot plant in Australia
  • Geothermal project in Indonesia
ENVIRONMENTAL PAGE Recent developments in environmental sector are discussed
  • Technology to reduce CO2, emissions
  • Air Products begins operating DOE carbon-capture project
  • Ex-factory prices of chemicals in China in June 2013
  • Tenders
  • Chemicals imported at Chennai port during May 2013
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