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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, May 2006

Pharma industry|Crude oil|Ethanolamines|Polysilazane|ethanolamines

Highlights of Some of the Articles
FOCUS ON AGROCHEMICAL MORE REWARDING THAN FOCUS ON PETROCHEMICAL With the price of crude galloping above 70US$ and one not being sure as to what would be the ultimate peak level, the petrochemical industry in India is now at the cross roads. As the Indian crude oil production is nearly stagnating and there is no immediate prospect of any significant increase in the production of crude oil or natural gas, it is clearly evident that the country has no inherent strength in the petrochemical field,
particularly in the present context of steep increase in the global price of the crude.
With massive capacities for petrochemicals being built in Middle East countries and Iran where crude oil and natural gas are plentifully available, even the multinational companies with strong base around the world are now seeking to participate in the building of plants in the Middle East regions rather than building capacities in Europe or America. In such conditions, India stands little chance in the petrochemical field and several operating Indian petrochemical projects are certainly facing uncertainties. Before long, a situation is likely to develop where it would be found that it would be more advantageous to import petrochemicals in India particularly from Middle East Regions rather than producing them in India. When such situation would develop, the closure of many petrochemical units in India would become inevitable. India needs to guard itself against such eventuality. This is a challenging situation which calls for immediate reassessment and redesigning of the strategy for growth for chemical industry in India. On the other hand, we find that Government of India and the leading Indian chemical industries are yet to come out with any concrete plans to tackle this difficult situation . The need for working out alternate strategies to sustain the growth has now become a matter of national priority. With India having to focus on its strength to work out the future strategies, there is no alternative for India other than banking heavily on the potentials of the agro chemical sector. Several of the agrochemical projects are likely to become profitable in the immediate future, with the likely steep increase in the production cost of the competing petrochemicals due to the spiraling crude oil prices. Many of the chemicals that are made by the petrochemical route can as well be made by agrochemical route and the competing advantages of the agrochemicals vis a vis petrochemicals would become more and more evident. What is needed is the adequate appreciation of the potentials of this agrochemical field and innovative forward planning to enable India to become an agrochemical giant in the world. It is now becoming clear that China has erred by creating huge petrochemical capacities involving several millions of US dollars to such an extent, that it cannot revert back in the present condition of the steep increase in the price of petroleum feed stock. Like India, China too has many advantages in the agrochemical field and like India, China has also not yet exploited the agrochemical opportunity in a big way so far. Fortunately, the Indian investment in the petrochemical field has not been as massive as that of China and India should convert this position into an advantage very quickly by turning towards agrochemical sector in a big way. What is needed is to re work out the priorities in the field of agriculture in India and go for massive investment for extending the area of agricultural crop cultivation. The extent of area of agricultural crop cultivation has not been growing in recent times, since agriculture is largely oriented towards food crops only that require irrigation and water requirement. If the focus of agriculture could be marginally shifted to other agrochemical oriented crops also, then it would be possible to immediately bring more area into agricultural cultivation and produce crops that would not be water demanding. The immediate example is jatropha. There are several other crops with medicinal and chemical value that are climate tolerant with adaptability to several soil conditions and regions. Moreover, there is also need for large efforts and investment in organizing purposive research and development programme to develop new agricultural crops as well as to develop and optimize technology for extraction of chemicals from agro products. The ball is clearly in the court of the Government of India and state governments, who should provide the right lead and direction to the chemical and agricultural industry in India. The writing on the wall is clear and if the government and the chemical industries would ignore the warning signals and fail to act, it would lead to a tremendous catastrophe before long.
With the crude oil price now exceeding 70 US dollar, there is tremendous concern all over the world. Many people think that the oil and gas crisis may be closer than we think. If the crude reserve estimates are over stated, then the extent of crisis facing the world could even be more severe. When the oil prices rise above $70 per barrel, inevitably the price of Ethylene and Propylene, the basic building blocks, would rise above $1000 per tonne. With oil above $70 per barrel, Japan and US GDP growth would fall to zero or even turn negative, affecting demand for higher priced products. The world has about 41 years left of oil to produce. More than 60 percent of the current oil deposits are in politically unstable Middle East Region. This article further discusses the following details:
  • Recent Oil Price Trends and Its Impact on Global Economy
  • India’s Energy Requirement-Findings of Study
  • How Long will Indian Coal Deposits Last?
  • President’s Call to Step up Power Generating Capacity in the Wake of Crude Oil Crisis
  • Utilisation of Natural Gas Resources
POSITIVE TRENDS IN GLOBAL PHARMA INDUSTRY The number of blockbuster drugs-those with sales exceeding $1 billion per year-increased 22% in 2005, to 94, according to a survey by market research firm IMS Health (Fairfield, CT). This compares to just 36 blockbusters on the market in 2000. Six blockbusters are expected to lose their patents in 2006, although the launch of new products and continued growth of those already on the market into blockbusters will result in an increasing number overall during the next five years. It is expected that the blockbusters will continue to be an important part of pharmaceutical market growth over the next five years, due to new uses for existing therapies, the emergence of niche and specialty products and the ongoing demand for chronic disease treatments. Total worldwide pharma market sales increased 7%, to $602 billion in 2005. About 40% of total market growth in 2005 was fueled by the introduction of new products, including 30 new molecular entities launched in key markets. IMS forecasts that total pharmaceutical market will expand at an annual rate of 5%-8% during the next five years. North America and Europe are each projected to grow at an annual rate of 5% to 8%; Asia/Pacific and Africa at 9% to 12%; Latin America at 7% to 10%; and Japan at 3% to 6%. A combination of underlying demand driven by aging population and successful innovation in areas of high unmet need, will continue to fuel growth. Generics will assume a bigger role as patients bear a greater percentage of their healthcare costs, and employers seek to restrict the growth of healthcare expenditures. This article further discusses the following details:
  • India’s Pharmaceutical Sector
  • Russia’s Pharmaceutical Industry
  • Market size and growth trend
  • Overseas players and leading companies
  • Mergers and acquisitions
  • Quality standards
  • Product range
  • Government’s programme
ETHANOLAMINES - INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY Ethanolamines are Ethylene Oxide (EO) derivatives and encompass the following three homologues: * Monoethanolamine (MEA)
* Diethanolamine (DEA)
* Triethanolamine (TEA).
PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS   Monoethanolamine Diethanolamine Triethanolamine Appearance Clear liquid White Crystals Or Colourless Viscous Hygroscopic Liquid Colorless, Water clear, viscous liquid CAS No. 141-43-5 111-42-2 102-71-6 Molecular Formula (CH 2 CH 2 OH) NH 2 (CH 2 CH 2 OH) 2 NH (CH 2 CH 2 OH) 3 N PRODUCT APPLICATION The family of Ethanolamines – including Monoethanolamine (MEA), Diethanolamine (DEA) and Triethanolamine (TEA) – offers a broad spectrum of application opportunities. Because Ethanolamines combine the properties of amines and alcohols, they exhibit the unique capability of undergoing reactions common to both groups. As amines, they are mildly alkaline and react with acids to form salts or soaps. As alcohols, they are hygroscopic and can be esterified. This article further discusses the following details:
  • Annual Imports
  • Indian Producers
  • Performance of Indian Monoethanolamines Industry
  • Indian Demand-Period 2006
  • Technology
  • Technology Developed by Nippon
  • Global Scenario-Major Global producers and Installed Capacity
  • Recommendation
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL: POLYSILAZANE This article discusses the application aspects and process technology as well as Indian import/export trends for Polysilazane. Polysilazane is a polymer made by condensing Aminosilanes with subsequent heating. CAS No 03590-70-3 Chemical Name Cyclosilazanes, Methyl hydrogen Methyl vinyl Although Polysilazane was first synthesized in 1921 by German chemist Alfred Stock, developing sufficient knowhow to put it into industrial production took another 70 years of research on ceramic technologies. APPLICATION Polysilazanes are silicon-containing polymers used to produce coatings on a wide variety of substrates. These coatings, being only a few micrometers thick, have excellent adhesive properties, making them ideal for various protective functions. Because polysilazane is enriched with different organic components, it has a high level of design flexibility and has excellent thermal stability.. It can be created as an inorganic or as a partially organic material. Polysilazanes are precursors to silicon carbide and silicon nitride ceramics. In addition to ceramic coatings, these preceramic polymers are used to produce both ceramic fibers and the matrices for three-dimensional ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Such ceramic composites, which are lightweight and combine high strength and toughness with exceptional high temperature durability, are suitable for applications in which other materials do not perform. Some applications, for instance, include components used in aircraft, turbine engines, microelectronics and in highly corrosive environments.  This article further discusses the following aspects:
  • Ceramic Precursor Polymers
  • Ceramic Coating Resin
  • Polysiazane clear coats
  • Producer’s specification
  • Process outline
  • Global producer
  • Acquisition in India
  • Agreement between Clariant and Starfire Systems
PYCNOGENOL: AN ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENT FROM NATURAL PRODUCT Pycnogenol is a group of bioflavonoids that are composed of polyphenols. Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPC) is an important component of polyphenols having therapeutic class of bioflavonoids. Pycnogenol is a powerful antioxidant. It has been shown to be 20 times more powerful than vitamin C and 50 times more powerful than vitamin E. This article further discusses the following aspects:
  • General details
  • Raw material source
  • Horphag Research, Geneva
  • Trademarks and patents
  • Research work on Pycnogenol
  • Clinical trial in India
  • Extraction process and yield
ALTERNATE PROCESS FOR WATER TREATMENT There are different grades of pure water available, as defined by different standards and conventions.Each type of treated water is used in a number of applications, as given below: * Medium pressure boilers, battery top-up [Deionised water]:
* Pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, chemical manufacturing [Purified water]
* Vial washing,tissue culture, water for injections [Apyrogenic water]
* High pressure boilers, laboratories [High purity water]
* Micro-electronics, superecritical boilers [Ultra-pure water]
This article contains the following details:
  • Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membranes for Deionised Water
  • UV Emission-for purified, apyrogenic and ultrapure water
  • Ion Exchange for High purity water
  • Pure water quality classification
  • China News
  • Anti Dumping Page
  • Safety & Accident Page
  • Process Flow-Fibre Glass
  • Nitric Acid Software- Pro Sim Plus HNO3
  • Update on Biofuel
  • Coconut oil based Biodiesel
  • Update on Biotechnology
  • Update on Carbon Trading
  • Clean Development Mechanism – How It Works?
  • Global emissions market-Findings of the Study
  • Update on Nano Technology
  • Update on Electronic Chemicals
  • News Round Up-India/International
  • Technology Development-India/International
  • CSIR Networked Project on Developing Green Technologies for Organic Chemicals
  • Petrochemical Page--India/International
  • Pharma Page--India/International
  • Pesticide Page-India/International
  • Herbal Page
  • Energy Page-India/International
  • Agrochemical Page -India/International
  • Environmental Page-International
  • Patent Page-India
  • Price Details-India/International
  • Tender
  • New Projects-International
  • International Maritime Dangerous Good Code-Part XXXLII
  • Directory of Chemical Industries in China-Manufacturers, Trading Houses and Promotional Organisations-Part XXXVII
  • A Joint Venture Project Under Construction by Shell Chemicals and China National Offshore Oil Corpn. (CNOOC)
  • Chemicals Imported at Chennai Port During the Month of December 2005 
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