Global Information Source for Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Allied Industries
  • +91-44-43511945



Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Oct 2010

Deep sea ethylene terminal|LNG import in india|Regassification terminals

Highlights of Some of the Articles
THOUGHT LEADERSHIP - THE CRITICAL ROLE OF CONSULTANTS With the challenges and opportunities facing the chemical industries becoming increasingly complex, particularly in view of the expectations of the community with regard to safety and ecological standards, there is great urgency to develop and encourage thought leadership for the chemical industries. Obviously, the consultancy organizations are in unique position to provide such thought leadership, that would set the trend and direction of growth, in tune with the requirement and expectations from time to time. The consultants are supposed to be experts in their chosen area of profession and should therefore have the capability and knowledge level to emerge as thought leaders. However, many consultancy set ups in India are yet to mature to the requisite level in terms of size and facilities. One reason for this could be that the Indian chemical industries are yet to adequately recognize the importance of quality consultancy organizations, who can provide guidelines and advice to them and in working out the strategies to overcome the complex problems and achieve growth. The incentives and encouragement provided by the government to the consultancy organizations are also minimal. With the industries not fully realizing the potential utility value that the quality consultancy organizations can provide, there is still not enough impetus for the consultancy organizations to grow. As a result, the best of talents are not being attracted to the consultancy organizations to the extent that it should. The consultants have to necessarily equip themselves with the strong and adequate database and information network and keep themselves continuously informed and updated about developments around the world. The development of capability to analyse and interpret the scenario in competent manner with original and innovative approach is vitally necessary. The consultants have to specialize in chosen areas of activities without extending their nets in variety of activities and they should get focused credentials. The consultants can emerge as the thought leaders, if they would fulfill these requirements in an elegant manner. The consultancy organizations have to develop brand image to be recognized as the thought leaders and such image can not be built overnight. It would take considerable efforts and proven track record to achieve this. Therefore, the consultants have to dig in and stay. Obviously, the gestation time for gaining expertise in any particular area of activities for consultancy organizations and emerging as thought leaders is atleast 6 to 7 years. The most essential requirement for a consultancy organization to emerge strong and famous is it’s manpower strength and the quality of it’s manpower. Therefore, the stability in the manpower strength and absence of attrition amongst employees are also important factors in emerging as experts and thought leaders . Obviously, as the thought leader, chemical consultancy organizations should seize the initiatives and take the leadership role without waiting for invitations to present their vision and ideas.
It is generally well recognized that the growth of chemical industry is essential requirement for recording all round industrial growth in multiple directions. There is rarely an industrial or consumer product, where the chemicals do not play an active role in the production of the product , whether it be cosmetic, pharma, textile, electronic, paper, aeronautic or metallurgy. As the growth of the chemical industries are the driving force for over all industrial and economic development, any neglect of the chemical industry can have adverse impact on the long run, in the economic and industrial development of any region. As the growth of the chemical industries are the driving force for over all industrial and economic development, any neglect of the chemical industry can have adverse impact on the long run, in the economic and industrial development of any region. Tamil Nadu which was at one time a pioneer in setting up chemical projects, appears to be losing its way now and nothing significant is happening in the development of chemical industry in the state. Unfortunately, the Government of Tamil Nadu which takes considerable interest in starting and encouraging automobile sector and its ancillaries and software projects, have not thought it necessary to provide similar attention and encouragement to the chemical industries. The lull in the chemical industries in Tamil Nadu would become clearly evident, if one would see the several missed opportunities . A few examples are given below: Petroleum Refineries Chennai Petroleum Corporation was set up a few decades back and has been expanding its capacities over the years. It has now announced plans for brown field refinery of capacity 7 million tonnes per annum at cost of Rs.10,000 crores. While this is praiseworthy step, nothing much has happened beyond expanding capacity of petroleum refinery. Neither Chennai Petroleum Corporation nor the Tamil Nadu Government has taken any worthwhile steps to promote and encourage .the downstream petrochemical industries based on the product stream of Chennai Petroleum Corporation, similar to what has been achieved in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Therefore, Chennai Petroleum Corporation remains largely as an “island of activity” A large petroleum refinery and petrochemical complex was proposed in Cuddalore by Nagarjuna Group around a decade back. Still, there is no firm indication as to when the project would be ultimately commissioned, though the company’s management has been announcing schedules from time to time. The project is facing unending road blocks The PVC project Only big project that has come up in Tamil Nadu in the last two to three years is PVC project of Chemplast Sanmar at Cuddalore. Unfortunately, this project was also delayed by several years due to environmental issues and it lost valuable time. Fertiliser industries Two fertilizer units in Tamil Nadu namely SPIC and Madras Fertilisers are in doldrums. SPIC has remained closed for sometime now and it has announced that it would restart the plant soon. Still one has to keep fingers crossed about the future of SPIC, as it has accumulated losses which has now reached alarming proportion. The other fertilizer unit namely Madras Fertilisers Ltd is facing threat of uncertain future due to unhealthy financial conditions. No other fertilizer project is under advanced stage of planning or implementation in the state at present. Soda ash The only soda ash plant in Tamil Nadu namely Tuticorin Alkali Chemicals has also been remaining closed, as it depends for its raw material requirement from SPIC. This unit is also facing distress situation. Titanium dioxide Titanium dioxide is very important chemical. The raw material for titanium dioxide namely ilmenite deposits are available in a few states in the country, with large deposits in Tamil Nadu. However, the ilmenite potential in the state remain largely unexploited . A large titanium dioxide project was announced by Tata Group in Tuticorin but it did not take off and Tata Group has officially announced the withdrawal of the project. This is a serious set back for the chemical industry in Tamil Nadu. Starch based projects Tamil Nadu produces around 80% of the tapioca in the country largely in the Salem belt. Unfortunately, several tapioca based starch units in Tamil Nadu have closed down in the past,due to variety of reasons. A number of important value added starch based products like citric acid, sorbitol, glucose etc. can be produced from tapioca available in the state. But nothing worthwhile has been done. Glorious opportunities for growth of starch based industries are being lost. Magnesite Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of magnesite ore in the country. Magnesite ore is the starting material for the production of Dead Burnt Magnesite (DBM) used in the refractories. Now, India has become large importer of Dead Burnt Magnesite. The problem is that the magnesium content in the magnesite ore in the Tamil Nadu has been steadily coming down due to continuous mining over the last 200 years or so .As the magnesium content in the magnesite ore are becoming less, the quality of the Dead Burnt Magnesite produced from the ore have become unacceptable to the refractory industry. The only way out is to set up beneficiation project for the magnesite ore to improve it’s purity level. Sometimes back, a large beneficiation plant for the magnesite ore was proposed but the project was given up. Molasses/alcohol based project Tamil Nadu is one of the big producers of sugarcane / sugar in the country. Unfortunately, there is no large molasses / alcohol based project in operation in the state. Many molasses based chemicals are being imported by the country. While there is huge focus in Tamil Nadu on using ethyl alcohol produced from the molasses for human consumption, attention has not been paid to promote industries for producing chemicals from molasses and ethyl alcohol. PTA project of SPIC A large purified terephthalic acid project requiring investment of several hundreds of crores of rupees was proposed by SPIC several years back and the company claimed that it spent over Rs.200 crores in the project. But the project did not take off at all. Traditional sector There are a number of traditional agro based chemical sectors in Tamil Nadu like vinca rosea (catharanthus roseus) operating for more than one hundred years. Most of these projects have been remaining stagnant and without any significant modernization to achieve growth. Advantage of long coastal belt Considering the benefits of long coast enjoyed by Tamil Nadu, there are many possibilities for setting up chemical projects based on sea water brine like salt based chemical units, bromine based chemicals, magnesium based chemicals etc. A magnesium metal project from sea water brine was set up by Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation some time back and the project was given up due to inadequate technology Production of fuel from algae is an exciting futuristic project opportunity, for which long term plans have to be initiated now. Tamil Nadu’s long coastal belt is ideal for the algae based fuel project. Case for promoting jojoba project Considering the climatic condition in Tuticorin belt, exciting possibilities exist for setting up project for jojoba crop. Jojoba is drought prone crop with great potential for cosmetic and lubricant applications and with long life of over 50 years. The global demand for jojoba based products are steadily increasing and the products are in great demand in international market. Government of India has considered this as a thrust project and set up promotional body in Rajasthan . But nothing has happened in Tamil Nadu though Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu is an ideal location for the crop. Herbal industry at the cross roads Tamil Nadu has huge potential for setting up globally competitive herbal projects with good export potential. A few years back,a feasibility study was commissioned by Tamil Nadu Medicinal Plant Farms & Herbal Medicine Corporation Ltd. (TAMPCOL- a Tamil Nadu Government undertaking)to assess the potential for herbal projects in Tamil Nadu and prepare a road map for the herbal industry. Extensive study was carried out and a comprehensive report was prepared with tangible recommendations. The fate of the report is not known . Natural gas availability Tamil Nadu is handicapped due to the inadequate natural gas availability that would act as feedstock for the petrochemical industry. With the availability of natural gas from Krishna-Godavari Basin, Tamil Nadu has not received any share of natural gas from the above project and apparently no claims have been made by the Tamil Nadu Government. There was a proposal made by Chennai based Chemical Industries Association a few years back to set up Southern Natural Gas Grid and the concept was supported by the then Tamil Nadu Government. Again nothing has happened for this worthwhile scheme. LNG terminal To give impetus to growth of the petrochemical industry, there was a proposal to set up LNG terminal near Ennore port that would facilitate the import of natural gas. The project has not moved and one is not clear as to whether it is still under the consideration of the Government of Tamil Nadu. Environmental issues One of the big problems faced by chemical industries in Tamil Nadu is lack of site for dumping the treated solid waste discharge from the industries. Inspite of the fact that several efforts have been made, no suitable site has been firmly located so far by the Government of Tamil Nadu that meet the requirement of all. Need for forward looking strategic planning What is obvious is that the Tamil Nadu Government has not applied its mind to prepare a strategic time bound action plan for promoting the chemical industries in the state. Without active support and incentives from the government for facilitating the growth, it would not be possible for the chemical industries in Tamil Nadu to forge ahead. It is sad that inspite of huge potential opportunities and enthusiastic investors and talented technologists and engineers, chemical industries in Tamil Nadu are now drifting in vacuum. The Government of Tamil Nadu should show initiative and move forward with imagination and understanding. Particularly, with Central Minister of Chemicals and Petrochemicals hailing from the Tamil Nadu, there can be no excuse for not forging ahead.
The predicament faced by both Sterlite Industries and South India Viscose can be broadly viewed as similar, since both the companies have been operated at reasonably good standards, employing best of technologies that are globally available . Certainly, problems faced by the units were not due to them but inspite of their efforts. It is also necessary to remember that several of the plants operating in similar conditions and parameters like that of South India Viscose Ltd and Sterlite Industries are presently running in other parts of the world. In the case of Sterlite Industries, Madras High Court has not only ordered the closure of the unit and censured the management of the unit and in the process, it also squarely blamed the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board and Central Environmental Ministry.Obviously, Madras High Court has over ruled the environmental authority in this matter, as Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board has no objection to the operation of Sterlite Industries in its present conditions. Environmental Ministry of Government of India have well laid out specification for discharge of emission from the operating plant premises. The authority like Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board can provide environmental consent only if the operating specification would be adhered to by the units as per the prevailing environmental rules and regulations. One wonders whether it would be appropriate for the court to over rule the decision of the Pollution Control Board in such matters, as the environmental authority must have been guided by the stipulated standards laid out in the rules. Possibly, the Madras High Court suspects that the Pollution Control Board have not implemented guidelines of the rules and regulations of the Government of India in strict accordance with the laid out specifications. But, there is no indication in the judgment and the court has not pointed out any such specific lapses by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board Ordering the closure of well run chemical units on environmental ground can always be a matter of controversy and doubtful decision , as the subject is one of cost benefit analysis and technological issues as well as loss of jobs and economic loss to the state. Judiciary can ill afford to maintain a tunnel view. In ordering the closure of the unit, obviously the Madras High Court is concerned about the consequence of social problems. To safeguard the interests of the over 2500 direct and indirect employees, it has ordered the payment of compensation but such compensation can be only once payment or payment for short duration and it will not relieve the problems of the affected employees in a meaningful way. The court has further directed District Collector to find alternative jobs for the employees, which is unrealistic and far fetched order, that can not be implemented by the District Collector due to various constraints. Is there not any other way that the court can deal with the environmental issue concerned with the Sterlite Industries? Instead of closing down the unit straight away, which is likely to cripple the unit permanently leading to loss of production capacity and economic loss for the state, the court could have given some time for Sterlite Industries to solve the problems. The court could have imposed heavy penalty on Sterlite Industries for environmental violation and insist that such penalty amount should be distributed to the affected people. Finally in all such cases, where the industries and employees suffer, the officials in the Pollution Control Board and environmental ministry go scot free, receiving only strictures from the court, which do not materially affect them. Actually, the corrective measures should have been taken by the environmental authorities long time back, if required. Have we ever heard about them being punished or suspended ? Why has not the court asked the Pollution Control Board and Government to pay compensation to the victims who have suffered due to environmental hazards caused by their negligence?
India produces around 20 million tonne of urea a year and imports 5 million to 6 million tonne to meet demand. Import of urea are likely to rise to 7 million tonne this year as food demand rises and domestic urea fertiliser output remains stagnant. India’s fertiliser imports will further go up in future, as the lack of natural gas availability will delay plans to invest $5.9 billion in setting up new fertilizer projects. About 2.2 million cubic meters of natural gas is needed to produce one million tonne urea. This article further discusses the following
  • Gas availability from KG-D6 block
  • Requirement of gas to increase urea capacity
  • Allotment of gas for fertilizer production
  • Year wise, nutrients wise imports of fertilizers
Regulatory issues such as environmental standards and lack of tax incentives have hit the tanning industry in Tamil Nadu, India. This article further discusses the above sector in detailed manner.
UK-based INEOS’s plans to build and operate a deep-sea ethylene terminal near Antwerp in Belgium. The company plans to build and operate one million tonne per year ethylene terminal at its Zwijindrecht facility in Belgium, which is run by INEOS Oxide. The operation of the deep-sea terminal, which is expected to start in 2012, will significantly change the shape of the ethylene market in Europe. Deep-sea ethylene volumes are currently available out of the Middle East, with regular volumes from Iran and considerable availability reportedly from some of the recent start-ups in Saudi Arabia, which are awaiting effective offtake from new downstream units. This article discusses the details.
The Dow scam was unearthed by the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 2007. It had also fined Dow Chemicals $325,000 for bribing the officials in India to fast-track permission to sell their pesticide brands that are banned in the US and many other countries. The SEC, in a `cease and desist’ order to Dow on February 13, 2007, charged the company with violations under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) for letting a subsidiary use funds for illegal activities in a foreign country. The order was passed after Dow voluntarily approached a commission staff, with the results of an internal investigation of DE-Nocil. This article further discusses the details.
The European Commission has launched an investigation into the possible circumvention by U.S. biodiesel suppliers of European Union (EU) antidumping duties on biodiesel imports from the U.S. It follows a request to the commission lodged by European Biodiesel Board (EBB; Brussels) last June 2010. This article further discusses the details.
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) has dropped its plan to open up oil refining and processing capacity for third-party access after leading companies opposed it, but now plans to similarly open up liquified natural gas (LNG) import and its re-gasification terminals to make the country's hydrocarbon infrastructure free of entry barriers. This article further discusses the details.
Glycerin is a by-product of biodiesel and co-product of fatty acid production. In the past, glycerin has been traded as a normal chemical additive but with the advent of biodiesel production in Europe at first, and now the US, South America and Southeast Asia, glycerin has fallen to the lowest prices in the history of glycerin production. Global refined glycerin price continued to plunge after reaching a peak of $2.205 per tonne, during the first half of 2008. Research and development efforts for new glycerin applications is strengthening, driven by continued low glycerin prices worldwide. Microbial fermentation presented opportunities to use glycerin as feedstock in the production of several novel surfactants, as well as well-established chemicals. This article discusses the following details :
  • Ethanol from glycerin
  • Fungicide
  • 2-Amino phenol
  • Glycerin based propylene glycol
  • Glycerin-based ECH projects
  • Global glycerin demand, from 2007 to 2010
Boron trifluoride (BF3) is a colourless, toxic and corrosive, nonflammable gas. When dry, it fumes in the presence of moisture yielding a dense white smoke. It is stable in dry atmosphere. Alternate names Boron fluoride , Trifluoroborane , Trifluoroboron CAS No. 7637-07-2 BF3 has irritating , pungent odour and is soluble in concentrated nitric acid, benzene, dichlorobenzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide Solubility in water ; 332 g per 100 g at 0 deg C BF3 easily polymerises unsaturated compounds such as butylenes, styrene, or vinyl esters, as well as cyclic molecules such as tetrahydrofuran. Boron trifluoride is primarily a pulmonary irritant. High concentrations burn skin similarly to acids such as HBF4. BF3 should be stored in gas cylinders away from heat in a ventilated place. Specification of BF3 Description Specification BF3 (By wt %) 99.5% min SiF4 0.015% max SO2 + SO3 expressed as S 0.0015% max Inert compounds 0.4% max This article discusses the following details :
  • Boron trifluoride etherate & its specification
  • Applications of BF3
  • Applications of Borotrifluoride etherate
  • Sample of Boron trifluoride exports from India
  • Sample of Boron trifluoride imports
  • Sample of Boron trifluoride etherate exports from India
  • Sample of Boron trifluoride etherate imports
  • Indian manufacturer
  • Substitution possibilities
  • Important Bulk drugs where BF3 gas /BF3 etherate can be used.
  • Consumption norms for BF3/ BF3 etherate for selected products
  • Manufacturing process
  • Prognosis
At normal temperature, thionyl chloride is a clear yellow liquid free from visible foreign matter and with pungent aroma odour. Chemical formula : SOCl2 Specification   Description Value Purity 99.6% (Min.) Sulphur chlorides 0.05% (Max.) Sulphuryl chloride 0.15% (Max.) Sulphur Dioxide 0.30% (Max.) Iron 5 ppm (Max.) Residue on ignition 0.01% (Max.) Distillation range 95% distills between 74 deg C to 78 deg C Specific Gravity at 20 deg.C 1.62 to 1.64 APPLICATIONS Thionyl chloride is reactive chemical reagent used mainly as chlorinating agent in organic synthesis, as intermediates in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and dyestuff. This article discusses the following details :
  • Application details
  • Price
  • Indian Producers
  • Indian production level
  • Consumption norms for selected end use applications
  • Imports
  • Exports
  • Substitution possibilities
  • Demand scenario
    • Indian demand
    • Pattern of application sectorwise demand
  • Global demand supply scenario
    • Global demand
    • Global growth rate in demand
    • Important global producers
  • Process
  • Prognosis
Iodophor is preparation containing iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent or any surfactant to form iodine complex. The product can be mixed in water. The result is a water-soluble material that releases free iodine when in solution. A group of iodophors have been developed and are marketed for a wide variety of disinfectant uses. Some of these products have a built-in indicator of disinfectant activity. Diluted iodophor has a reddish-brown tint to it. As the solution is used up, the normal amber (brownish-yellow) colour fades. When the solution is colourless, it is no longer effective. Physical characteristics Appearance Brown liquid pH 1 to 2 Stability Stable under normal temperature and pressure Hazardous decomposition products Hydrogen iodide, iodine Handling and storage Iodophor should be stored in a tightly closed container kept in cool, dry, well-ventilated area and away from incompatible. Hands should be washed thoroughly after handling. This article discusses the following details:
  • Product composition
  • Product application
  • Indian producers
  • Indian demand and pattern of application sectorwise demand
  • Manufacturing process
  • Raw material requirements
  • Iodine availability
  • Recommendation
Triacetonamine is white or light yellow powder. Molecular Formula C9H17NO Other names Triacetone amine hydrate ; 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl piperidinone ; 4-Oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine CAS No. 826-36-8 Triacetonamine is moderately soluble in water and is soluble in acetone, alcohol and ether. The product is stable in normal conditions. This article discusses the following details:
  • Important derivative products of triacetonamine
  • Applications
  • Global producers
PLANT CLOSURES The article discusses the plans for closure of selected units by the following players
  • Cristal Global to close Maryland titanium dioxide plant
  • Asahi Kasei to exit ammonia and benzene
  • Arch Chemicals to close two R&D centres
  • Nabucco consortium abandons Iran plans
  • Karoon Petrochemical keeps TDI unit idle
  • Solvay to stop making SRP at US plant
  • Permanent plant shutdowns
  • Styrene unit shutdowns since 2007
SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PAGE Following safety and accident details are discussed:
  • Oil rig explodes in gulf of Mexico
  • Series of failures led to oil spill: BP
  • BP Oil spill costs nearly $10 billion
  • Gas leak in Tamil Nadu Petroproducts
  • Explosion in CNPC Fushun Petrochemical, China
  • Chinese oil rig collapses
  • Fatal blast shuts two units at Pemex Refinery,Mexico
  • Explosion kills worker at Arizona Chemical
ANTI DUMPING PAGE The antidumping measures introduced in the various countries in the last few weeks on the following products are discussed:
  • Opal glass
  • Neoprene
  • Fatty alcohol
NEWS ROUND UP The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed: INTERNATIONAL
  • Propane dehydrogenation (PDH) facility
  • World’s largest polyamide plant
  • Genetically modified sugar beets – Controversy
  • Ethyl acetate
  • Hydroxy propylcellulose
  • Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
  • Bio adipic acid
  • Brazil's ethanol fuel production
  • Ethylene vinyl acetate
  • Gas processing facility
  • Alleged cartel activity of gases firms in Brazil
  • Dow India closes it’s Pune project
  • ONGC gets into shale gas exploration
CHINA NEWS The recent developments on the following products/events are updated :
  • Use of methanol as fuel recent developments in China
    • Problems in use of methanol as fuel
    • Initiative in China
    • Standards for methanol fuel
  • Isostatic graphite
  • PP compounds
  • Fluoro elastomers
  • Polypropylene - coal to olefins plant
  • Production curtailment of ten non ferrous metals
  • Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS The recent developments on the following technology efforts are highlighted
  • BASF starts battery research network
  • Molecular sponge to soak up CO2
  • Novel refrigerant from General Motors –HFO 1234 yf
  • Glycosbio develops biochems from fatty acid
  • Ultra super critical technology for coal fired power plants
AGROCHEMICAL PAGE The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • Freezer watermelons
  • Indian Organic products developments
  • Maize starch buyers switch to tapioca
  • GM rice claim
PHARMA PAGE The recent developments on the following products/events are highlighted:
  • Differences between chemical drugs and biologics
    • Sensitivity of biologics process
    • Dangers of replication
    • Difference in the processes
  • New Diabetes molecule –GKM 001
  • Quality checks hold up new drug approvals of generic firms in US
  • ANDA Stuck
  • New drug that kills deadly superbugs in less than 5 minutes
ENERGY PAGE The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • PV encapsulant with polyolefin film growing demand in solar power market
  • Coal shortage looms ahead in india
    • Coal India unable to meet supply targets
    • Bugs to reclaim rare metals from waste for clean energy
    • Plastic waste, tyre chips to fuel cement kilns
  • Solar power industry needs holistic approach findings of the study
  • Comparative solar energy index in May 2010 in different countries
ENVIRONMENTAL PAGE The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • Hindustan Tin launches ‘Canvironment'
  • New likely US regulation on benzene content in gasoline
PRICE TRENDS - INTERNATIONAL Global price trends on the following products are provided :
  • Acetone
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Fluid catalytic cracking catalysts
  • Naphtha price in Asia
  • Bulk chemical prices
  • Contract bulk chemical prices
  • Update On Nanotechnology
  • Update On Carbon Trading
  • New Projects – International
  • Tender
  • Chemicals Imported At The Chennai Port During The Month Of August 2010
Subscribe to Nandini Chemical Journal and Order Reprints
Nandini Chemical Journal, Annual subscription, 12 issues, sent as a pdf document by email. US $100.See Details