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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, May 2010

Acetonitrile|nanoscale materials|cane harvest|global bioplastics

Highlights of Some of the Articles

It is now clearly seen that there is slackening of efforts in India for capacity creation in the petrochemical industry. The import level of petrochemicals are steadily increasing, since production capacities are not being built in tune with the growth in demand for petrochemicals in India. Increasing import trend of petrochemicals The import level of a few petrochemicals are given below as illustrative example.
Quantity in metric tonnes   Name of the product April 2005 to March 2006 April 2006 to March 2007 April 2007 to March 2008 April 2008 to March 2009 Acetic acid 43119 124464 136421 285037 Acrylonitrile 70053 83815 81832 81568 Benzene 18520 6053 20342 51859 Monoethylene glycol 94488 162603 254734 424427 Methanol 401087 527286 788815 1058866 Phenol 96098 65265 96248 91829   Polypropylene 105263 104131 177710 238229 Styrene monomer 391333 405715 413840 395725 Toluene 84252 129118 142896 145719 VAM 41863 40103 53895 50378 In the case of fertilizers, the production in India is remaining nearly stagnant and the import is going up. Stagnant fertilisers production and increasing import in india Quantity in lakh metric tonnes   UREA   DAP   MoP   production import` production import import 2004-05 202.39 6.41 51.72 6.44 34.10 2005-06 200.85 20.57 45.54 24.38 45.78 2006-07 202.71 47.19 47.13 28.75 34.48 2007-08 198.39 69.28 42.11 27.24 44.31 2008-09 199.23 56.67 29.93 61.92 43.36 2009-10 205.00 60.00 43.00 70.00 50.00 India - A targeted market for China and Middle East Countries In the eyes of the international producers, Indian petrochemical market is perceived to be potentially large, with considerable scope for increasing demand in the coming years. Such expectations are creating considerable interest abroad for targeting the Indian market. Huge capacities are now being built in the Middle East countries and China for petrochemicals. For several of the projects coming up in these regions, India is one of the important targeted markets.. This scenario has created certain level of uncertainty and apprehension amongst Indian project promoters , about possible import dumping of the petrochemicals in the near future. India has to take note of this development and should take urgent steps to ensure that India would not become mere dumping zone and would not become excessively import dependent for its petrochemical needs. Feedstock scenario Internationally, petrochemical industries are being built with natural gas as the predominant feedstock. In the absence of long term natural gas availability at assured level, it would not be possible for any region to build and operate large scale petrochemical industry. Indian production for natural gas State-wise natural gas production in 2008-09 and projected 2009-10 production   Natural Gas (in (mmscmd)   2008-09 2009-10 Total offshore 66 (73.3%) 119.5 (83.6%) andhra pradesh 4.2 (4.6%) 3.8 (2.7%) arunachal pradesh 0.1 (0.1%) 0.1 assam 7 (7.8%) 8 (5.6%) gujarat 7.1 (7.9%) 6 (4.2%) rajasthan 0.6 (0.7%) 0.8 (0.6%) tamil nadu 3.4 (3.8%) 3.3 (2.3%) tripura 1.5 (1.7%) 1.3 (0.9%) west bengal 0.1 (0.1%) 0.1 (0.1%) Natural gas production in March,2010 registered a 69.4 per cent increase year-on-year to 4.79 billion cubic metres, according to the data released by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. However, the current gas production is not comparable year-on-year, as Reliance Industries Ltd commenced gas production from its Krishna Godavari Basin block only in April 2009. It is expected that India's natural gas production will more than double to 170 (mmscmd) million standard cubic meters per day by 2012, after fields such as Reliance Industries' eastern offshore KG-D6 would reach peak output. When KG-D6 hits peak, the share of fuel produced by the fields operated by private sector firms will touch 102.57 mmscmd (in 2012).The projections anticipate an additional 2 mmscmd output from Mahanadi basin NEC-25 field of Reliance in 2012 and 4.5 mmscmd from Gujarat State Petroleum Corp's Krishna Godavari basin field. India's import of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is slated to more than double to 23 million metric tonne by 2012 from 9 million metric tonne in 2007-08 after the LNG terminals at Dabhol, Kochi and Mangalore terminals would become operational. Indian demand for natural gas If India were to create large capacity for petrochemicals based on natural gas to meet it's projected demand, the demand for natural gas would substantially increase in India. In such event, more LNG terminals have to be planned to increase the import level of LNG. Scenario in South India In the availability of natural gas, South India has faced disadvantage until now, though development of the KG Basin has given some hopes for southern states. Therefore. Southern India has lagged behind in capacity creation for petrochemicals, compared to western and northern India until now. There is need to ensure large quantity of natural gas availability in South India, to give a big push to petrochemical industries in southern region and distribute the petrochemical projects in an equitable manner around India . This, obviously implies that adequate pipeline network has to be built up in southern India to transport natural gas from LNG terminals and KG basin to various destinations. Natural gas pipeline network Government of India's target for Natural Gas Pipeline Network is given below Present length 10800 km gas pipeline Present capacity 270 *mscmd Additional targeted length 7450 km gas pipeline Additional targeted capacity 248 *mscmd * mscmd (million standard cubic meters per day) In southern India, Tamil Nadu will get three gas pipelines by 2012 to increase availability of gas in the state. GAIL India Ltd will lay pipeline between Bangalore and Chennai. Reliance Industries will lay pipeline between Kakinada and Chennai, which will be later extended to Thoothukudi in Tamil Nadu. A pipeline is also proposed to be laid between Bangalore and Chennai Need for task force to plan for petrochemical complex The completion of LNG terminals presently under implementation to import natural gas and laying of various pipelines to transport natural gas are expected to be completed by 2012. It is still not clear as to what quantity of natural gas would be made available for each region in the coming years. A reasonable and reliable estimate of how long the gas production would be sustained in KG Basin at the peak level is yet to be made. Plans for building more LNG terminals are yet to be firmly announced in the light of the experience in building LNG terminals at Kochi and Mangalore which have been considerably delayed. It is high time that a task force must be constituted to develop integrated plans for setting up petrochemical projects in various regions in India in tune with the natural gas availability. The task force should pay particular attention to the requirements of southern India which have fallen behind compared to the western and northern India in creating capacity for petrochemical projects due to short fall in the availability of natural gas. The petrochemical complex have to be planned keeping in view the demand supply scenario for various petrochemicals in India, the competitiveness of the Indian projects in the Indian and global market and economic viability based on the present and projected price factors for the finished products and the comparative cost/ price of natural gas in the Indian and the global market. The petrochemical project scheme has to be designed based on "make or buy approach" and the projects that would not be of significant advantage to Indian conditions have to be carefully eliminated. The Indian petrochemical industry is in great need of policy initiatives and governmental guidance to ensure that India would not be unduly dependent on international source for its petrochemical needs in the coming years. Any delay in responding to the challenge in the field would prove costly in the course of time. It is in such circumstances that there is nationwide concern particularly amongst the chemical industries that the Union Minister for Chemicals and Petrochemicals, who has a very crucial role to play, is not even attending the Parliamentary session regularly. It appears that the leadership that should be provided by the Ministry of Chemicals and Petrochemicals is conspicuous by absence.
Chemical formula CH3CN Appearance Clear and free of suspended matter                                                             colourless liquid Odour Aromatic; Ether-like (Strong.) Toxicity and hazards Toxicity of acetonitrile is relatively low, compared to hydrogen cyanide or acrylonitrile Grades Acetonitrile is commercially available in the following grades.
  • Chemical grade
  • Reagent grade
  • High purity grade
General characteristics of different grades of acetonitrile are as follows. Chemical grade
  • High dipole moment
  • Solvent for many organic compounds
  • Easily solvates with cation and enhances the reactivity of anion
  • Chemically stable and solvates some inorganic compounds
  • Reactivity of cyano group enables production of many nitrogen containing organic intermediates
  • Easy to produce azeotropes with other organic compounds
Reagent grade
  • UV absorbance at 250 nm is below 0.03 abs
  • UV absorbance at 200 nm is below 0.3 abs
Highly Purified Grade (HPLC grade)
  • Assay: 99.99% up more
  • Water content: below 50 ppm
  • Organic by-products: only very small amount of propionitrile
This article contains the following details
  • Product Specification
  • Product Application
  • Global supply scenario
  • Global producers
  • New project
  • Global demand
  • Process
  • Indian scenario
  • Prognosis
Neonicontinoid compounds are a class of high potency, safe and highly selective new pesticides.The prominent feature of neonicotinoid insecticides is that they are effective against several types of harmful insects that have become resistant to common insecticides, but the chemicals have low toxicity to mammals.  Neonicotinoid insecticides include imidacloprid, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, imidaclothiz, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin and dinotefuran.  It is estimated that in the next five years, share of , neonicotinoid products in the world’s total pesticide consumption will increase substantially. This article further discusses the following details :
  • Imidacloprid
  • Acetamiprid
  • Nitenpyram
  • Imidaclothiz
  • Thiacloprid
The beauty of nanoscale materials is that once below the 100nm threshold, they start to exhibit properties quite distinct from the bulk element. A lot of material science is about the ratio between surface and volume; nanoscale materials are almost all surface, which make their behavior closer to atomic theory. New technologies for nanoscale materials are offering new properties and uses to many coating products. This article further discusses the following details :
  • Nanocomposite insulation – Nansulate products
  • Nano coatings for aerospace
  • Nano scale technology in health care products
  • Nano products developed by  Bayer Material Science
North American supply of acrylic acid has been tightening since two December 2009 accidents in Texas,USA.
Since December, acrylic acid  contract prices have risen by 17% on tight supply, rather than stronger demand.
This article briefly discusses the details
Sugar mills – particularly in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra  in India are taking to mechanical cane harvesting in a major way, in the context of rising costs as well as scarcity of manual labour.
This article further discusses the following details”
  • Manual harvesting
  • Comparison with mechanical harvester
  • Import of mechanical harvesters
  • Other details
PVB resin and PVB films have superior adhesive properties, toughness, transparency and weather resistance with a variety of base materials such as glasses and metals,. The film is used as an inter layer in safety glass, while the resin is used in coatings, inks and binders for ceramics. Kuraray is the world’s leading manufacturer of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)_ resin, ethylene vinyl alcohol polymer (EVOH) resin and PVA film, an essential component of liquid crystal displays and has a powerful global presence in VAM related products, which lies at the heart of its core business. This article further discusses the details.
The use of bioplastics to replace traditional polymers in multilayer flexible packaging for snack foods, coffee and meats [is] growing. Further developments of new shrink film, extrusion coating and lamination and foam applications will drive further growth in packaging for 2010-2012. A bioplastics study by Netherlands-based Utrecht University, which was jointly commissioned by European Bioplastics and European Polysaccharide Network of Excellence and published in June 2009, projected global bioplastic capacity to increase to 2.3 million metric tonnes by 2013 from around 360,000 metric tonnes in 2007, based on company announcements. US market research firm Freedonia released its global ­bioplastic study projecting that global demand in 2013 would increase to 900,000 metric tonnes from the 200,000 metric tonnes estimated level in 2008. US consulting firm Jim Lunt & Associates estimates the current global production capacity for bioplastics at 300,000 metric tonnes per annum . Bio plastic project plans of leading companies are discussed in this article.
  • Announced Polymer Capacities For Major Bioplastic Players
  • Plans of Teijin
  • Plans of NatureWorks
  • Project plans of Cereplast
  • Plans of Telle
  • Other initiatives
  • BASF
  • Plans of Novamont
With the Indian agricultural sector proving to be unremunerative to the farmers and stake holders, as evident from the large number of suicides committed by the farmers, there is great urgency to develop and promote value addition in the agricultural operations. This can be readily done by setting up large number of agro chemical projects in India This article describes the investment opportunities in agrochemical industry in India.
Thorium-based fuel technologies will play an important role in India's efforts to generate 45,000 MW of nuclear energy by 2031. This article further discusses the details. DRAFT RULES FOR E-WASTE RECYCLING It is estimated that India produces some 3.8 lakh metric tonnes of e-waste annually. 

The Environment Ministry of Government of India announced draft rules for handling of e-waste by defining the responsibilities of stakeholders such as producers, dealers and recyclers among others.
This article further discusses the details. GM PLANS BIODIESEL BASED VEHICLES Biodiesel, developed by Central Salt And Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSMCRI), has received patent in the US. The success of a project on jatropha in Gujarat could make General Motors India introduce biodiesel-capable products as part of its global efforts to synergise business with alternative sources of green energy. This article further discusses the details. NATURAL GAS SCENARIO IN EUROPE Suspension of natural gas supplies by Russia to Ukraine and Belarus early this year and in 2009 crippled companies in Eastern Europe and highlighted the dependence of the West European region to the natural gas supply from Russia. In Western Europe at the far end of the pipeline, companies in the UK - has far less gas storage capacity than many of its counterparts in mainland Europe and these regions are more vulnerable For the most part, natural gas is sold to large industrial users under long-term indexed contracts of three to six months. This article further discusses the following :
  • Dependence of Poland
  • Dependence of Germany and France
  • Dependence of UK
  • Pipeline deal of Russia with East Asia
  • EU’s policy
In 2009, China unveiled its Golden Sun Programme to subsidize photo voltaic projects  totaling 642 MW at a total estimated costs of RMB 20 billion (US$2.9 billion).. In China, Linde LienHwa (LLH) is a joint venture between The Linde Group and LienHwa MiTac Group of Taiwan province. ADVANCES IN PREFILLED SYRINGES’ TECHNOLOGY

Contributed by:
Ms. Bharati.G. Basantani, Lecturer- Plastic Technology,
Ms. Dhara B. Parmar,M.E.
Chemical Engineering Department,
L.D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad-380 015
Prefilled syringes are a fast growing alternatives to vials for many drug products. Currently, most prefilled syringes are made of glass, but plastic syringes are gaining popularity, particularly in applications for which glass is an unsuitable delivery system. Earlier plastics were, however, made of polypropylene which do not offer the clarity of glass or ease of sterilization. New polymers such as cyclo olefin copolymer have been now developed that are able to substitute effectively. Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC) is an amorphous polymer made by several polymer manufacturers. COC is a relatively new class of polymers when compared to polypropylene and polyethylene. In the last decade, pharmaceutical protein and peptide drug products have been approved for use with prefilled plastic syringes. One example is a peptide drug product in a Daikyo Crystal Zenith (CZ) syringe. More products using plastic prefilled syringes are in various phases of drug development. Comparison of drug stability in glass versus plastic containers is discussed in this article.   ONION - NATURAL ALTERNATIVE TO PRESERVATIVES Onion, one of the most cultivated and consumed vegetables, contains some components that have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, making it possible to use it to preserve food, says a new study. The study has been conducted by researchers from the Polytechnic University of Cataluna (UPC) and the University of Barcelona (UB).
Indian industry can meet the 2020 emission intensity reduction target but finds it difficult and costly, says a new report. The government has voluntarily committed to cut emission intensity of the GDP by 
20-25% by 2020 on a baseline of 2005.
This article further discusses the details. FOCUS ON INDIAN POWER SCENARIO This article discusses the following in detailed manner :
  • Solar Power Scheme Draws Massive Proposals
  • Power from household carbage in Europe
  • India’s dependence on LNG for Power projects
  • Over 12500 MW Projects of 10th Plan Still Stuck
  • Private sector adds record 9585 MW to grid
  • Project plans of NTPC for South India
  • 2200 MW of Wind Energy to be added in 2010
PLANT CLOSURES The article discusses the plans for closure of selected units by the following players
  • Dow declares force majeure on GAA at Deer Park, Texas,USA
  • Cristal global declares force majeure at UK titanium dioxide plant
  • Alcoa plans to shut down two  aluminium smelters
ANTI DUMPING PAGE The antidumping measures introduced in  the various countries in the last few weeks on the following products are discussed:
  • Soda ash
  • PVC paste resin
UPDATE ON BIOFUELS The following recent developments on biofuel industry are discussed:
  • Contract farming of jatropha in Tamil Nadu
  • Italian customs seize American biodiesel
  • Biogasoline demo plant
NEWS ROUND UP The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed: INTERNATIONAL
  • High performance rubber project of Lanxess
  • Ammonium nitrate plant in Argentina
  • Monsanto  completes glyphosate expansion project
  • Shell starts up Singapore cracker
  • Taipei’s `Plastic pavilion’ to build awareness on recycling
  • Acrylic TPE plant
  • DSM to sell fertilizer and melamine units
  • Polyacetal
CHINA NEWS The recent developments on the following products/events are updated :
  • BASF Shanghai plant produces Emissions Control Catalysts
  • TDI plant
  • Coal-to-Gas projects in China under implementation
  • LNG from coal seam gas (coal bed methane)
  • MEG Project
  • AkzoNobel’s investment in China
  • Dimethyl ether
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS The recent developments on the following technology efforts are highlighted International
  • Waste to Energy Technology
  • New materials from solidified carbon dioxide
  • Polypropylene catalyst
  • Catalytic technology prevents scale evaporator
  • New software tool for water purification system
  • New acrylic products from Bayer
  • Plastic cells for next gen solar tech
PHARMA PAGE                        The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • Pharmamarker to trace regulatory changes in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry
  • Stem cells
  • Cancer drug Albupac declared sub-standard
  • Shantha Biotech recalls 5-in 1 vaccines over safety issues
ENERGY PAGE The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed:
  • Power project of Bajaj Hindusthan
  • Solar power projects of Tata BP Solar
PRICE DETAILS - INTERNATIONAL Global price trends on the following products are provided :
  • Monothylene glycol
  • Propylene
  • Polypropylene
  • Acrylonitrile
  • Epoxy resin
  • Styrene butadiene rubber
  • Benzene
  • Butanediol
  • MTBE
  • Vinyl acetate monomer
  • Paraxylene
  • Styrene acrlonitrile
  • Methyl methacrylate
  • Caustic soda
  • Spot Bulk Chemical Prices
  • Contract Bulk Chemical Prices
  • Agro Chemical Opportunities
  • Tender
  • New Projects - International
  • Chemicals Imported At The Chennai Port During The Month Of  March 2009
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